Back in mid-century America, you did old-style sit-ups, which were once regarded as the gold standard of iron-gut, military discipline. Maybe they still are, so if your idea of "manly" is messing up your lower back, go for it. But few fitness trainers recommend old-style sit-ups, though there are some re-conceptualized versions of them that might work for you.

Why do we exercise? We all know it's good for our health, but have you ever thought about it?  Do you exercise the way you do because you've heard that's the way it should be done? Is it possible that the current way of working out could be good for some parts of our body, but bad for others... are we doing more harm than good? Are we spending more time exercising than we need to?
What Does the Workout Focus on? – This goes along with matching the exercise video to what you want to work on in your fitness goals. Make sure the exercise video you choose will help you reach the fitness goals you have. For example, if one of your goals is to work on getting flatter abs and there is not an abs exercise on the whole video, this is a major fitness goal that goes untouched. With the variety of exercise videos on the market today, you will be able to find an exercise video that helps you reach your goals.
In his new P90 DVD set, the supertrainer Tony Horton drops the "X" for an all-levels-welcome version of his wildly popular 90-day program. The 10 workouts—including total-body and core on the floor routines—are mapped out for you in a follow-along schedule. The modification options to the mix of cardio and resistance moves "make every set possible" for a gymlike intensity, testers said, all in 25 minutes. "It doesn't get much better than that," one reviewer raved.
Lie on your back with the knees bent and feet hip-width apart. Place arms at your side and lift up the spine and hips. Only the head, feet, arms, and shoulders should be on the ground. Then lift one leg upwards, keeping the core tight. Slowly bring the leg back down, then lift back up. Try to do 10 reps per leg, then bring the knee in place and spine back on the floor.
“I always tell people that you want to learn why you’re doing something—knowing a bunch of moves doesn’t matter as much when don’t you know how to implement them,” explains Cori Lefkowith, Orange County-based personal trainer and founder of Redefining Strength. So even if you’ve got planks and push-ups down, understanding what’s really going on while you’re training can help you reach your goals faster. We’ve decoded 25 common fitness terms for you so that you can work out with confidence and get the most out of your fitness routine.
One way repeated ANOVA was used to compare time to exhaustion between sessions (S1, S2 and S3). Relative reliability was calculated with the intraclass correlation (ICC) model (3, 1) [27]. Absolute reliability was calculated with the typical error of measurement (the standard deviation of the change scores divided by [28, 29]). Bland and Altman’s 95% limits of agreement were also used (calculated for S1 vs S2, S1 vs S3 and S2 vs S3) as an additional representation of measurement error and to identify the presence of heteroscedasticity [19]. As data were heteroscedastic, both raw data and log transformed Bland and Altman’s plots are presented. Limit of agreement ratio (LOA) was also calculated from the log transformed data as follow: LOA = (1.96 × SDdiff / grand mean) × 100; where “SDdiff” represents the SD of the differences between tests (S1 vs S2, S1 vs S3, S2 vs S3) and “grand mean” represents (mean S1 + mean S2 + mean S3)/3. As time to exhaustion data were heteroscedastic, we also calculated the coefficient of variation (CV) for each subject as follow: CV = 100×(SD of the three measurements)/(mean of the three measurements). Mean CV for all subjects were also calculated. We also calculated the smallest worthwhile change (0.2 × between subjects SD) [21].
* After you reach your peak of development, you lose muscle tissue every day up until your death. The rate at which you lose muscle tissue significantly affects how fast you "age". Strength building exercise will slow this natural loss of muscle tissue. Would you rather age quickly or slowly? What kind of shape would you prefer to be in when you're in the Fall and Winter of your life?

This is a two-fold explanation: 1) how long it takes to train per session and 2) how frequently we recommend training. We believe – and basic muscle physiology principles state – that the best way to stimulate a muscle is by short, intense bouts of exercise. Not in long, drawn-out workouts, which simply can’t be as intense. Ideally, a resistance training workout should only last 20 to 30 minutes. Longer workouts are typically less intense and can release catabolic hormones (which we don’t want). When it comes to exercise, “more” is not necessarily “better.” Working out is merely a method of stimulating your results. Your actual gains or improvements occur when your body “recovers” from the exercise. If you exercise before your muscles are completely recovered from a bout of exercise, you’re just … beating a dead horse. You need to find the right “dose” of exercise for you. Too little exercise limits your progress, but too much or too frequent exercise doesn’t allow your body to recover properly and may hinder your progress as well. The ideal frequency of your training may change over time based on things like your specific genetics or how intensely you train. Our clients typically train only once or twice per week, with only a handful ever training more frequently than that. The best way to know how frequently you should train is through very detailed and accurate record keeping. Your personal trainer at SMX will always monitor your training. Once a fair amount of data is compiled by your trainer, we can dial in and fine-tune how frequently and what intensities are ideal for you to maximize your results.
Pharmacologic beta-adrenergic blockade reduces maximal heart rate (HR) during exercise but variable results have been reported for minute ventilation (VE), CO2 output (VCO2), and O2 uptake (VO2). A total group of 19 subjects with mild asthma was studied. We studied 16 subjects from the group who received placebo or pindolol, a beta-adrenergic antagonist, during 1-min incremental exercise on a ... [Show full abstract]Read more
Children who participate in physical exercise experience greater loss of body fat and increased cardiovascular fitness.[23] Studies have shown that academic stress in youth increases the risk of cardiovascular disease in later years; however, these risks can be greatly decreased with regular physical exercise.[24] There is a dose-response relation between the amount of exercise performed from approximately 700–2000 kcal of energy expenditure per week and all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease mortality in middle-aged and elderly populations. The greatest potential for reduced mortality is in the sedentary who become moderately active. Studies have shown that since heart disease is the leading cause of death in women, regular exercise in aging women leads to healthier cardiovascular profiles. Most beneficial effects of physical activity on cardiovascular disease mortality can be attained through moderate-intensity activity (40–60% of maximal oxygen uptake, depending on age). Persons who modify their behavior after myocardial infarction to include regular exercise have improved rates of survival. Persons who remain sedentary have the highest risk for all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality.[25] According to the American Heart Association, exercise reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases, including heart attack and stroke.[22]
A compound exercise is a move that incorporates multiple muscle groups, like lunges, deadlifts, and squats. It may also refer to two moves being strung together, like a bicep curl to a shoulder press. Compound exercises are efficient for increasing overall muscle mass and burning calories (because they require more effort to complete), as opposed to isolation exercises, which focus on working just one muscle group (like a bicep curl).
Anaerobic exercise differs from aerobic exercise in that it is comprised by short bursts of a high-intensity activity such as that repeated during strength training. While aerobic exercise uses oxygen for fuel (an early definition of aerobic is, after all, "living only in the presence of oxygen"), anaerobic exercise draws its fuel from carbohydrates. Anaerobic exercise also produces lactic acid, unlike aerobic exercise. To get started with some anaerobic exercises, check out this list of anaerobic exercises you can do anywhere. While anaerobic exercise does not burn as many calories as aerobic exercise burns, it will still help to improve respiratory and cardiovascular fitness. Additionally, because anaerobic exercise depletes energy more quickly than the blood can replenish the muscles' oxygen, the body's anaerobic metabolism kicks in, burning glucose as fuel. Even after the the anaerobic activity has stopped, the metabolism remains increased for up to several hours. If anaerobic exercise is repeated often, it will even have an effect on your resting metabolic rate. This will cause your body to burn more calories in general—even when you're sleeping.
Data were analysed using three different methods: visual inspection, parametric statistics and calculation of sensitivity for both OTS and NFO detection. Because the sample size was rather small (ie, maximal 5 for each group), data were first inspected visually. Parametric statistics and sensitivity calculation were used to support conclusions from visual inspection of the data. For the purpose of visual inspection, we created graphs with averages and SE for both the OTS and the NFO groups.
In the fourth and final week of the program, you’ll train four days in a four-way split that hits each bodypart just once (except for calves and abs, which are each trained twice). Four-day splits are common among experienced lifters because they involve training fewer bodyparts (typically 2–3) per workout, which gives each muscle group ample attention and allows you to train with higher volume. As you’ll see, chest and triceps are paired up, as are back with biceps and quads with hamstrings, each a very common pairing among novice and advanced bodybuilders. Shoulders are trained more or less on their own, and you’ll alternate hitting calves and abs—which respond well to being trained multiple times per week—every other workout. No new exercises are introduced in Week 4 so that you can focus on intensity in your workouts instead of learning new movements.
During the time to exhaustion tests, all perceptual and physiological measurements increased over time. The increase in heart rate is similar to a previous study using the same exercise on a different ergometer [18]. Furthermore, these authors demonstrated that the respiratory system is not a limiting factor for this exercise. Despite we did not measure the maximum heart rate of our subjects via a typical whole-body incremental test (e.g. cycling), it is clear that a heart rate of ~ 130 beats/min is faraway of the maximum heart rate capacity of our subjects. Therefore, taking all together, these results confirm that high intensity OLDE performed until exhaustion is not limited by the cardiorespiratory system.
In addition to determining the optimal position from which to initiate an exercise based on the patient's related impairments and level of pain, exercise dosage and progression are important aspects of a rehabilitation program. Intervention details, such as number of repetitions and sets, exercise order, and work-to-rest ratios, should be tailored to each patient based on his or her specific needs. The proposed protocol does not describe a method to determine the initial exercise intensity or the criteria for modification or progression. Using a criterion-based method to determine the initial intensity and progression would individualize these guidelines of the exercise program. In their randomized controlled trial designed to address the effectiveness of exercises to treat RCIS, Lombardi et al6 used a 6-repetition maximum load to establish the starting intensity of strengthening exercises. They6 also recommended a reevaluation every 2 weeks to make necessary adjustments to exercise intensity. Although we do not know whether the 6-repetition maximum-load criteria used in their study is optimal, it is an excellent example of a criterion-based method to determine initial exercise intensity and progression. Future research on exercise for the treatment of RCIS should include criterion-based methods to determine the optimal exercise dosage and progression.
Exercise was defined as planned, structured activities, for instance going for walks, skiing, swimming and doing sports, but also as unplanned activities that the participants experienced as exercise. The participants were asked to fill in exercise logs immediately after each exercise session they performed throughout the year and send them to the research center either in prepaid envelopes monthly, or to use internet-based forms following each exercise session [21]. Exercise frequency was calculated as the mean number of sessions reported per week during the year. To assess intensity of exercise the participants reported their subjective RPE on a Borg scale ranging from 6 to 20 [20]. The participants were asked to report the mean intensity level during the exercise session. Ratings from 6 to 10 were classified as low intensity, 11 to 14 as moderate intensity, and 15 to 20 as high intensity. Duration of exercise was measured with a 4-point scale: less than 15 min, 15–29 min, 30 min to 1 h, and more than 1 h. Less than 15 min and 15–29 min was combined due to a low response rate on these response options (1.1 and 8.7% of the total number of exercise sessions, respectively).
Tip: Be sure you know which methods of exercise your company allows, and understand the tax consequences discussed in the third, fourth, and fifth articles in this series. Check the stock plan documents for each stock option grant, and complete necessary paperwork before the date you intend to exercise. Ask the stock plan administrator (or appropriate person) for exercise procedures pertaining to each method. Not all companies may have written procedures.
For Paced Audio Workouts: MotionTraxx (iPhone or iPad) - This music-based app is another great option for home exercisers, particularly if you're a walker or runner. Deekron the Fitness DJ has put together an incredible variety of music mixes, all set at different beats per minute, so you can find the perfect pace for any workout - Walking, running, lifting weights or other activities. There are also coached workouts (these cost extra) available at iTunes.

Warm up. This is the act of preparing your body for the stress of exercise. The body can be warmed up with light intensity aerobic movements like walking slowly. These movements increase blood flow, which in turn heats up muscles and joints. "Think of it as a lube job for the body," Bryant explains. At the end of your warm-up, it's a good idea to do a little light stretching.
Katy Fraggos, co-Owner and Head Trainer at Perspirology, says you can work your triceps, core, hip flexor, working leg quadriceps, and supporting leg hamstring in just 30 seconds a day with this move. “Start with your hands behind your back on the floor with fingertips pointed in. Working leg lifted with flexed foot. Butt is off the floor,” she says. “When elbows are bent, the knee is pulled into the chest. Arms will straighten as leg kicks outward to the front of the body in a ‘pumping’ action.” Try to complete as many as possible in 30 seconds and then if you have extra time, repeat for 30 seconds with the opposite leg lifted.
Dewayne Riggins, celebrity trainer and Founder and CEO of Inspirational Fitness, says you can work your quads and glutes with reverse lunges—30 seconds on each leg. How to do them: Stand in an upright position and then step back with one leg; bend knees as low as you can. Drop your back knee to one inch off the ground or as low as you can and be sure front knee is not leaning over the foot. Repeat with the other leg.
... Consequently, it was suggested that when determining LT in trained subjects, at least 8-min stages should be used ( Foxdal et al., 1996;Weltman et al., 1990). However, using such a stage duration would not allow maximal tasks to be assessed, since the duration of the whole procedure could result in an excess of fatigue or motivation ( Buchfuhrer et al., 1983). This was shown to compromise the V Á O 2max and maximum work-rate achievements (Bentley et al., 2007). ...
Also important to know is how to determine how much weight you should use. Start with a light weight and perform a set. Continue adding weight until you can do the desired number of reps with good form, which includes moving slowly enough that you're using muscle—and not momentum—to lift the weight. The last rep should be difficult, but not impossible, and you should be able to keep good form while doing it.
18.  If you experience pain while working out, STOP! Although moving slowly drastically decreases the probability of injury, common sense dictates that if you feel pain, stop and try again a week later. Maybe you weren't hydrated enough, and maybe you need to reduce the resistance. And pain is not to be confused with a "burn". The expression, "No pain, no gain" is misleading. Pain is a warning to stop. A burning sensation simply means you've worked the muscle very intensely.
It's hard to pinpoint the first time exercise appeared visually on-screen—meaning on film or video, something that you could see, as opposed to hear—but one of the earliest is the 1928 film Exercise: A Film Lesson in Health and Hygiene. It isn't exactly instructional, but features a bunch of boy scouts showing off some rather bizarre group exercise routines. Check out the bit that starts around 1:22, where they ride each other like human chariots. Anyhow, this film is significant in that its primary purpose is to display and broadcast forms of exercise to an audience, and it seems to be the first to have done so.
Anaerobic tips for beginners: build up your aerobic capabilities and some baseline level strength a bit before trying to sprint or do activities that require explosive movement. If you do decide to do anaerobic exercise, shorten the timeframe for which you perform the exercise. For example, sprint for 10 seconds instead of 30. Do three sets of five box jumps instead of 15.

We've said it before, but HIIT really does the job when you want to trim ab fat: A study published in the Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness found that people who did two HIIT and two strength sessions a week lost more visceral fat (11 percent of the dangerous kind around your organs)—about an extra inch from their waist—than those who ran twice and did two strength sessions. Plus, many of those speedy intervals, such as sprints, are total-body moves that engage your abs big time. Do speed bursts on a cardio machine or try three-minute boxing rounds (another transverse tightener) with a minute of active recovery in between. This unique HIIT workout incorporates some boxing moves and some weight training for double the benefits. (Don't get along with HIIT training? Studies show adding music will make it more enjoyable.)
Back in mid-century America, you did old-style sit-ups, which were once regarded as the gold standard of iron-gut, military discipline. Maybe they still are, so if your idea of "manly" is messing up your lower back, go for it. But few fitness trainers recommend old-style sit-ups, though there are some re-conceptualized versions of them that might work for you.
ShapeFit.com is dedicated to providing health and fitness information to people so they can live a healthy lifestyle. ShapeFit has thousands of pages of fitness content with fun and interactive tools to help our visitors lose body fat, build lean muscle and increase their energy levels. We wish you great success in reaching your health and fitness goals!
In fig 3A–D, absolute hormone concentrations are presented for the NFO and the OTS groups. Visual inspection of the data led to the conclusion that resting concentrations cortisol, ACTH and PRLwere higher for OTS patients comparedwithNFO. However, reactions to exercise tests did not differ between the groups. Resting hormone concentrations were tested with independent t tests. Only for ACTH, the t test gave a value >2 (ie, t8=2.6; p<0.05), meaning that only for ACTH, the difference between the groups was more than twice as large as the SE. Sensitivity of resting cortisol, ACTH and PRL was four out of five (cutoff 175 μg l−1), four out of five (cutoff 40 ng l−1) and two out of five (cutoff 50 IU l−1), respectively (table 2). Sensitivity for detection of NFO was three out of five, four out of five and three out of five respectively for cortisol, ACTH and PRL, respectively (table 2).
The fact that GH did not perform as well as both other pituitary hormones in the present study could be the result of the large inter-individual variation in the NFO group. One of the NFO athletes had a very low resting value before the second exercise test and showed an increase of 12 000%. Cortisol concentrations after the second exercise test seem also quite good markers for OTS but poor when it comes to distinguish NFO from OTS. Although almost all OTS athletes showed a reduced increase in the response of cortisol to the second exercise bout, almost none of the NFO athletes showed an overshoot (table 2). This result is similar to earlier findings.10 22

Our methodology, classes + 1:1 training incorporate what a lot of fitness methods are missing [regardless of pregnancy]. So while we provide you necessary tools and guide you to a strong + functional core and body, we won’t just teach you to “kegel”  or  “pull your belly button to your spine” because those techniques need to stay in the past. Instead, we create a balance in your pelvic floor and core that will continue to support you for life, preparing you for your birth marathon and motherhood with every pulse, hold, and full range move we guide you through. 
P corresponds to the power expressed in watt (W), T the torque in newton meter (N·m) and the angular velocity in rad/s. Typical recordings of torque, position and EMG signals from the Vastus Lateralis (knee extensor) and Biceps Femoris (knee flexor) could be found in Fig 2. Fig 2 presents all signals previously mentioned for an isotonic resistance of 9 N·m (~ 16.7 W, panel A) and 37 N·m (~ 68.5 W, panel B). The inactivity of the Biceps Femoris during the flexion phase confirms that we were successful in creating a protocol on the dynamometer that isolates the knee extensor muscles during dynamic exercise, as in the exercise model originally proposed by Andersen et al. [10].

At the end of each pregnancy journey, you’re greeted by the mother of all marathons and we want to help you prepare for your birth experience in the best possible ways. Our Bloom classes as well as our 1:1 foundational crash courses were designed with empowerment in mind. We can’t promise you’ll find gentle workouts behind our studio door [you’ve got a marathon to train for] but we can promise that each workout will give you the safest, most effective, mind + body focused workout you’ll find in the prenatal world. Our workouts will make you sweat, challenging you both mentally and physically, while we integrate our signature techniques seamlessly into each exercise you move through. Think of it as childbirth education meets a safe sweat session gifting you tools to be used time and time again.

Former ballet dancer and Ballet Beautiful founder Mary Helen Bowers has serious fitness cred thanks to training Natalie Portman for her role in Black Swan. With this free workout video, she takes her expertise outside the dance studio. The 15-minute mat workout will help tone your lower body with graceful ballet-inspired movements like bridge variations.


In 1982, home workouts came to VHS tape when Jane Fonda released her first exercise video, Jane Fonda's Workout. The video had been inspired by the workout book Fonda had released the previous year, Jane Fonda's Workout Book. After its release, Jane Fonda's Workout gradually became a best-seller after more than 200,000 tapes were sold in one year. The tape was the first of its kind, and is sometimes credited with launching the tape industry. Few people owned VCR players when Fonda released her first tape, but as her exercise tape became increasingly popular among Americans and needed to be watched repeatedly in order to be effective, families were encouraged to buy the necessary hardware to play the tape.

The Russian twist is a type of exercise that is used to work the abdomen muscles by performing a twisting motion on the abdomen. This exercise is performed sitting on the floor with knees bent like in a "sit-up" position with the back typically kept off the floor at an angle of 45°. In this position, the extended arms are swung from one side to another in a twisting motion with or without weight.


Instructor Inés Aaranós leads this full 30-minute Zumba dance session on the beach. You might want to practice a few basic Zumba moves before diving into this full-length video, however. It’s fast-paced and without any breaks, leaving you no time to fall behind. It’s also cardio-intensive, but does feature some bodyweight strength moves to provide you with a well-rounded workout. Complete this routine a few times and see how you improve.
However, our goal is not necessarily to move more weight but to safely and efficiently target your muscles. By dramatically slowing the speed of the movements and ensuring that the weight smoothly changes directions, we virtually eliminate the possibility of injury. Excessive momentum is removed so only the muscles (and not the joints, tendons, or ligaments) are taxed.
Overweight children who participate in physical exercise experience greater loss of body fat and increased cardiovascular fitness. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the United States, children and adolescents should do 60 minutes or more of physical activity each day.[133] Implementing physical exercise in the school system and ensuring an environment in which children can reduce barriers to maintain a healthy lifestyle is essential.
Jumping is the purest form of explosiveness. In this move, the athlete starts from the ground and jumps onto a box of a certain height – start with a lower height box and build your way up. HOW TO DO IT: Start with your feet shoulder-width apart, and drop down to a quarter squat. Then, drive your arms up as they explode out of the quarter squat and onto the box. Once your feet land on the top of the box, you open your hips and stand up. To repeat, you can “plyo” the jump by rebounding immediately off of the ground. An alternate way of completing repeated box jumps is to step down off of the box before jumping back up. MUSCLES USED: Glutes, quads, hamstrings and calves.
The 1980s also brought the grueling workouts from Buns of Steel with Greg Smithey. In Buns of Steel, Smithey guided viewers in a series of rigorous exercises aimed to tone their rears and thighs. Despite the rigor and intensity of the workout, or perhaps because of it, over one million copies of the VHS tape were sold. That said, I can't help but wonder how much of Smithey's—also called the Bunmaster— success is due to his uncomfortably vivid and surreal line: "Don't forget to squeeze those cheeseburgers out of those thighs!" Wait, what? Smithey comes off as pretty sleazy throughout his tapes, but don't let that stop you. The workout is, after all, titled Buns of Steel.

The two 20-minute high-energy kickboxing routines combined with other cardio moves eliminate boredom in this program. When I felt particularly ambitious, I did both together for one calorie-blasting 40-minute workout; I chose one or the other when I only had 20 minutes to spare in the morning. Make sure to do this in a spacious room, because the amount of kicking, punching and movement, as I unfortunately discovered, is not tailored to tiny spaces.
Jump up ^ Lees C, Hopkins J (2013). "Effect of aerobic exercise on cognition, academic achievement, and psychosocial function in children: a systematic review of randomized control trials". Prev Chronic Dis. 10: E174. doi:10.5888/pcd10.130010. PMC 3809922. PMID 24157077. This omission is relevant, given the evidence that aerobic-based physical activity generates structural changes in the brain, such as neurogenesis, angiogenesis, increased hippocampal volume, and connectivity (12,13). In children, a positive relationship between aerobic fitness, hippocampal volume, and memory has been found (12,13). ... Mental health outcomes included reduced depression and increased self-esteem, although no change was found in anxiety levels (18). ... This systematic review of the literature found that [aerobic physical activity (APA)] is positively associated with cognition, academic achievement, behavior, and psychosocial functioning outcomes. Importantly, Shephard also showed that curriculum time reassigned to APA still results in a measurable, albeit small, improvement in academic performance (24).  ... The actual aerobic-based activity does not appear to be a major factor; interventions used many different types of APA and found similar associations. In positive association studies, intensity of the aerobic activity was moderate to vigorous. The amount of time spent in APA varied significantly between studies; however, even as little as 45 minutes per week appeared to have a benefit.
Improving your balance makes you feel steadier on your feet and helps prevent falls. It's especially important as we get older, when the systems that help us maintain balance—our vision, our inner ear, and our leg muscles and joints—tend to break down. "The good news is that training your balance can help prevent and reverse these losses," says Wilson.
Aerobic exercise induces short- and long-term effects on mood and emotional states by promoting positive affect, inhibiting negative affect, and decreasing the biological response to acute psychological stress.[45] Over the short-term, aerobic exercise functions as both an antidepressant and euphoriant,[46][47][48][49] whereas consistent exercise produces general improvements in mood and self-esteem.[50][51]
6.  If an exercise can be done for more than 90 seconds, increase the resistance so that momentary muscular failure occurs within 45 - 90 seconds (this is considered "high-intensity" exercise). If you can do sit-ups for ten minutes, the intensity is insufficient to cross that threshold mentioned above, and you're just wasting valuable physiological resources. If you can't do even one rep, reduce the resistance (i.e. if doing a push-up, change from being on your toes to on your knees, or start from the top and slowly lower yourself; if using a machine, choose a lower setting; if using free-weights, pick a lower weight; if doing a chin-up, use a chair to boost yourself up to the top, then take your feet off the chair and slowly lower yourself).
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