This stands for rate of perceived exertion, and refers to intensity. It’s a point of reference that trainers often use to communicate how hard you should be working since what feels easy or challenging is different for everyone. On the RPE scale a 1 pretty much means zero effort while a 10 means you’re working harder than you thought you possibly could.
KE EMG RMS corresponds to the sum of EMG RMS of the following muscles: Vastus Lateralis, Rectus Femoris and Vastus Medialis. Isokinetic KE MVCs were performed at 60 (panel, A), 100 (panel B) and 140 (panel C) deg/s. Isokinetic KE MVCs were measured pre-exercise (pre, average of all three sessions pre-exercise values), shortly after exhaustion (13 ± 4 s after exhaustion), 20 s following exhaustion test (P20) and 40 s following exhaustion test (P40). Data are presented as mean (SE).
Jump up ^ Hubal MJ, Gordish-Dressman H, Thompson PD, Price TB, Hoffman EP, Angelopoulos TJ, Gordon PM, Moyna NM, Pescatello LS, Visich PS, Zoeller RF, Seip RL, Clarkson PM; Gordish-Dressman; Thompson; Price; Hoffman; Angelopoulos; Gordon; Moyna; Pescatello; Visich; Zoeller; Seip; Clarkson (June 2005). "Variability in muscle size and strength gain after unilateral resistance training". Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 37 (6): 964–972. PMID 15947721.
Selection bias may limit generalizability to other populations of older adults since the included participants in the Generation 100 study were healthier, more educated and more physically active than nonparticipants [19]. However, our study population was diverse and included both healthy as well as older adults with comorbidities, and both inactive and very active older adults were included. The findings in the present study are based on a very large data material, and represent the most comprehensive data material on exercise patterns among older adults to date.
Whenever I’m feeling overwhelmed and super busy, the first thing that always falls off my schedule is hitting the gym—even though I know making the extra time to sweat it out will make me feel better and more centered. But I’ve realized that you can always find a way to prioritize the things that matter, even if you have to get creative with the way you fit them in.

This is so that every muscle in your body can be targeted. Also, it provides variation so that you don't get bored and give up. If you don't like exercise, revert to what your ancestors did instead and walk everywhere, move constantly and do plenty of physical work at least once a day, such as chopping wood, gardening, carry loads or cleaning your house vigorously.
This is the first study that has followed older adults instructed to perform MCT or HIIT over a one-year period, collected data from each exercise session they performed and provided descriptive data on their exercise patterns. The main finding is that both groups to a large degree exercised with the prescribed intensity. MCT had a higher proportion of walking sessions than HIIT, while HIIT had a higher proportion of jogging sessions than MCT. In addition, HIIT had a higher proportion of sessions with cycling, combined endurance and resistance training, swimming and dancing. Both groups exercised more frequently outdoors than indoors and performed an equal amount of sessions alone and together with others.
It's no secret we love Denise Austin here at Woman's Day, and this DVD reinforces why. Her simple instructions and cheerful attitude help each of the three 15-minute routines zip by. She focuses on one area of the body per session — upper body, lower body or ab & core conditioning — so I can target a trouble zone (ahem, thighs) or get a great full-body workout.

The Instructor – This is one of the most important factors of your exercise video. If you don’t like the instructor, it will eventually irritate you enough to stop using it. Look for instructors that motivate you to work harder and push harder not work to end the video so you don’t have to listen to them anymore. It’s a plus for the instructor to actually have a fitness background of some kind, which is both for your safety and to give you the knowledge that the video has legitimate foundations in real fitness rather than just being something they did on a whim or for celebrity endorsement.
A simple example of an eccentric contraction is to hold something in your hand with your elbow bent. Slowly allow your elbow to straighten out while holding the weight.  You can visualize your bicep muscle lengthening as you are holding the weight while you are slowly straightening your elbow.  This is an eccentric contraction or eccentric loading of your bicep muscle.
In her hilarious, naked, and explicitly honest anecdote, she described her aversion to most fitness regimens ("I can't run because I piss myself . . . and fart at the same time"), her DVD workout — "Charlotte's 3-Minute Belly Blitz" — and her complete surprise at the intensity of the routine ("THAT'S the f*cking WARMUP?"). To be honest, most of us have been there, so this is pretty damn relatable.
Our methodology, classes + 1:1 training incorporate what a lot of fitness methods are missing [regardless of pregnancy]. So while we provide you necessary tools and guide you to a strong + functional core and body, we won’t just teach you to “kegel”  or  “pull your belly button to your spine” because those techniques need to stay in the past. Instead, we create a balance in your pelvic floor and core that will continue to support you for life, preparing you for your birth marathon and motherhood with every pulse, hold, and full range move we guide you through. 
Physiological, psychological and EMG responses to the time to exhaustion tests are presented Figs 4 and 5. Leg RPE (Fig 4A), leg muscle pain (Fig 4B) and heart rate (HR, Fig 4C) increased over time (all P < 0.001). Cadence during the time to exhaustion decreased over time (P < 0.001). Planned comparisons for these aforementioned parameters are presented Fig 5. EMG RMS of the VL (Fig 5A), VM (Fig 5B), RF (Fig 5C) and the sum of these muscles (Fig 5D) increased over time (all P < 0.001). Planned comparisons for EMG parameters are presented Fig 5. Blood lactate concentration increased (from 1.3 ± 0.5 to 6.0 ± 1.1 mmol/L, P < 0.001) and blood glucose concentration decreased (from 5.3 ± 0.5 to 4.4 ± 0.3 mmol/L, P = 0.001) over time.
You’re only a week into the program, yet you’ll begin to train different bodyparts on different days with a two-day training split (meaning the entire body is trained over the course of two days, rather than one as in the first week). You’ll train a total of four days this week; the split includes two upper-body days (Monday and Thursday) and two lower-body days (Tuesday and Friday), and each bodypart is trained twice. Wednesday, Saturday and Sunday will be your recovery days.
The St Thomas method, however, did not survive World War II, besides the mentioned indications of use in Australia a decade later, and Randell’s work has since been forgotten. Various factors might attribute to this, including the tragic loss in 1940 when two bombs hit St Thomas hospital killing four physiotherapists including Thomas;29 Sydney Morning Herald [Internet]. Thomas BM: Obituary (1940). 2014 Oct 23 [cited 2015 Aug 30]. Available from: [Google Scholar] and the promotion of rival London obstetric group, led by Grantly Dick-Read and Physiotherapist Helen Heardman, with the concept of natural childbirth. This movement gained favor with the healthcare establishments, chartered physiotherapists and the general public at the ultimate expense of the St Thomas Project.23 Raphael AJ. Natural childbirth in twentieth century England; PhD thesis. London: Queen Mary University of London; 2010. [Google Scholar] Randell left St Thomas physiotherapy school in 1945, just before the Chartered Society of Physiotherapy imposed a new syllabus.37 The National Archives [Internet]. Saint Thomas’ hospital: physiotherapy school. 2009 Aug 12 [cited 2015 Sep 23]. Available from: [Google Scholar] She received the royal title of OBE and extended her career interest with a focus on gynecological cases; in 1948, she co-founded the Obstetric Association of Chartered Physiotherapists, was awarded an honorary fellowship of the Chartered Society of Physiotherapists and was later remembered as the pioneer of modern women’s health physiotherapy (Figures 1, 5–7).38 Pelvic Obstetric and Gynaecological Physiotherapy [Internet]. A brief history. 2015 Aug 30 [cited 2015 Aug 30]. Available from: [Google Scholar]
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To determine the acute action of cigarette smoking on cardiorespiratory function under stress, the immediate effects of cigarette smoking on the ventilatory, gas exchange, and cardiovascular responses to exercise were studied in nine healthy male subjects. Each subject performed an incremental exercise test to exhaustion on two separate days, one without smoking (control) and one after smoking 3 ... [Show full abstract]Read more
My husband ordered this program several months ago and I was, of course, skeptical. But, being sick of our current workout programs and seeing as it was only going to take 4 minutes, what did I have to lose? We tried it...and we LOVE it. There is about a 2 min warm-up routine you are supposed to do before each workout, then a rotating schedule of 4-min, muscle tiring, heart pumping workouts. You wouldn't think that 4 minutes could really do anything, but time has proven otherwise. After only a couple months of doing the workouts as a family, we are seeing great results. I've got a nice set of pipes, my stomach is flatter and I'm up to a 4-pack...hoping I'll get to that 6-pack before the end of the year, my rear, legs and waistline are trimmer and more firm. My ... full review

Circuit training tips for beginners: my advice here depends on how physically demanding the circuit is. If you’re just getting into working out and you want to circuit train, start with some less challenging exercises as part of your circuit and consider decreasing the time from a minute for each circuit to 30 seconds (or whatever you’re comfortable and able to finish the circuit with). The same advice applies here as in some of the other sections above: it’s good to build a baseline level of strength and aerobic fitness before circuit training, but it also depends on your level of fitness when you start.

Ready to begin rehabbing your core before you’re cleared to exercise? We can help with this too! Have a talk with your care provider and we’ll take care of the rest. During this early rehabilitation stage, we keep it simple, helping you integrate our techniques into your new life, progressing you when you and your body are ready for the next steps. The way we connect to our body in the first several weeks postpartum can really set the stage for the months ahead.
Remember when the only thing your cell phone did was make phone calls? Now, you can waste all kinds of time with smartphone apps that allow you to do everything from playing Scrabble to exercising. Smartphones, iPads and MP3 players are excellent resources for home exercisers, particularly if you find yourself getting bored from doing the same old thing, day after day. With the right apps, you can find guided workouts, paced music, timers and more, all of which can add variety and fun to your home workouts.
Although there is evidence of Pilates teaching standing exercises at Jacob’s Pillow,48 YouTube [Internet]. Difusión de Pilates. Joseph Pilates holistic video (1932). 2014 Dec 14 [cited 2015 Aug 30]. Available from: [Google Scholar] he excluded standing exercises from his 34 exercise Contrology home routine, in contrast to the documented repertoires of Checkley,9 Checkley E. A natural method of physical training. New York (NY): William C. Bryant & Co.; 1890. [Google Scholar] Müller,15 Müller JP. My system. London: Link House; 1904. [Google Scholar] Randell,25 Randell M. Training for childbirth from a mother's point of view. 4th ed. London: J. & A. Churchill Ltd.; 1949. [Google Scholar] Vaughan,47 Youtube [Internet]. Vaughan, K. Childbirth as an athletic feat (1939). 2009 Feb 23 [cited 2015 Aug 30]. Available from: [Google Scholar] and Morris33 Morris M. Basic physical training. London: Heinemann; 1937. [Google Scholar] that were dominated by standing exercises. He explained: ‘Note that all the exercises are performed while you are in a sitting or reclining position. This is done to relieve your heart from undue strain as well as to take advantage of the more normal (original) visceral organs.’46 Pilates J, Miller WJ. Return to life through Contrology. Nevada: Presentation Dynamics; 1945. [Google Scholar]
The Pull-up is performed by hanging from a chin-up bar above head height with the palms facing forward (supinated) and pulling the body up so the chin reaches or passes the bar. The pull-up is a compound exercise that also involves the biceps, forearms, traps, and the rear deltoids. A chin-up (palms facing backwards) places more emphasis on the biceps and a wide grip pullup places more emphasis on the lats. As beginners of this exercise are often unable to lift their own bodyweight, a chin-up machine can be used with counterweights to assist them in the lift.
* Respect the body's design when exercising. We are capable of doing many things the body was not designed to do. And this is also true when it comes to physical activity. We're designed to walk, climb, and sprint. We walked a lot back in the good old days when we foraged in paradise, we climbed to get the sweetest fruit, and we occasionally sprinted to escape danger. Take a cue from little kids: they love to climb, when they run they sprint (try to get them to do distance running), and they can walk just fine. When we do the activities we're designed to do, that's when we'll be in great shape... we won't be under-active, and we won't be over-active, and both are bad for the body, for different sets of reasons.
Major findings: Within a few decades of the turn of the 20th century, a cluster of mind–body exercise methods emerged from at least six pioneering founders: Checkley, Müller, Alexander, Randell, Pilates, and Morris. Each was based upon a similar exercise philosophy and similar functional movement-harmonizing exercises. This renaissance of independent mind–body schools occurred in parallel with the demise of the 18th and 19th century gymnasium Physical Culture movement and the concurrent emergence of bodybuilding and strength training. Even though mostly forgotten today, Western mind–body exercise methods enjoyed celebrated success during the first half of the 20th century, were hailed by medical and allied health practitioners and practiced by millions from society’s elite to deprived minorities.
Natural movement-harmonizing exercises and stretches have likely been practiced since the beginning of mankind. Forms of non-strenuous rhythmical functional movements were used for three main purposes: To manage and prevent musculoskeletal disorders, to maintain a naturally healthy body and mind, and to enhance athletic performance. Around the turn of the 20th century, at least six independent Western modern mind–body (MMB) methods emerged simultaneously. This phenomenon occurred during the same era in which Einstein, Picasso, Freud, and Stravinsky also broke away from dominating and restrictive establishment controls, subsequently freeing their fields. The cultural changes and personal emancipation that MMB pioneers brought to the exercise world were no less dramatic, yet significantly less documented.

Walking was the most common exercise type in both training groups (Fig. 3). Compared to HIIT, MCT had a significantly higher proportion of sessions with walking and resistance training. Contrary, compared to MCT, HIIT had a higher proportion of sessions with cycling, combined endurance and resistance training, other types of endurance training (e.g. aerobic, treadmill), jogging, swimming and dancing. There were no group differences regarding cross-country skiing and domestic activities (e.g. housework, gardening) (Fig. 3).
In summary, Kuhn demonstrated substantial evidence in randomized clinical trials that exercise is effective for treating individuals with RCIS, thereby supporting its use in clinical practice. However, as Kuhn indicated, detail related to which specific exercises are best to prescribe is lacking. Thus, it might be premature to label this exercise protocol as a criterion standard based on current available evidence. In addition, the multifactored nature of RCIS indicates that individuals do not present with a homogeneous list of impairments. Therefore, we believe that using the same exercise program to treat everyone who has RCIS is inappropriate. An effective exercise program is derived not only from the pathoanatomic diagnosis but also from the synthesis of factors, such as pain, impairments, and functional limitations. Furthermore, we believe follow-up examinations might be necessary to modify and progress the individual's exercise program. Development of a classification-based treatment approach using evidence-based exercises with standardized exercise dosage and progression guidelines might optimize outcomes for individuals with RCIS.
One of the most recognized MMB pioneers was Joseph Hubertus Pilates, born near Dusseldorf in Germany to a prize-winning gymnastics father and naturopath mother. According to Pilates historians’, he was a bullied child who suffered asthma and a weak body that he overcame as a teenager by learning anatomy from medical books and the practice of sports such as wrestling and gymnastics. During this process, he developed a model body, which was even displayed in anatomy classes.39,40 Balanced Body, Inc. [Internet]. Origins of Pilates. 2015 Aug 30 [cited 2015 Aug 30]. Available from:
18.  If you experience pain while working out, STOP! Although moving slowly drastically decreases the probability of injury, common sense dictates that if you feel pain, stop and try again a week later. Maybe you weren't hydrated enough, and maybe you need to reduce the resistance. And pain is not to be confused with a "burn". The expression, "No pain, no gain" is misleading. Pain is a warning to stop. A burning sensation simply means you've worked the muscle very intensely.

EMG RMS was measured for the following muscles: Vastus Lateralis (VL), Rectus Femoris (RF), Vastus Medialis (VM) and the overall knee extensors (KE; sum of VL, RF and VM). Data are presented as main effect of time and mean (SE). * significantly different from 10% and $ significantly different from 100%, 1 item for P < 0.05, 2 items for P < 0.01 and 3 items for P < 0.001.

Jump up ^ Tarumi T, Zhang R (January 2014). "Cerebral hemodynamics of the aging brain: risk of Alzheimer disease and benefit of aerobic exercise". Front Physiol. 5: 6. doi:10.3389/fphys.2014.00006. PMC 3896879. PMID 24478719. Exercise-related improvements in brain function and structure may be conferred by the concurrent adaptations in vascular function and structure. Aerobic exercise increases the peripheral levels of growth factors (e.g., BDNF, IFG-1, and VEGF) which cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and stimulate neurogenesis and angiogenesis (Trejo et al., 2001; Lee et al., 2002; Fabel et al., 2003; Lopez-Lopez et al., 2004). Consistent with this, exercise-related enlargement of hippocampus was accompanied by increases in cerebral blood volume and capillary densities (Pereira et al., 2007). Enhanced cerebral perfusion may not only facilitate the delivery of energy substrates, but also lower the risk of vascular-related brain damages, including WMH and silent infarct (Tseng et al., 2013). Furthermore, regular aerobic exercise is associated with lower levels of Aβ deposition in individuals with APOE4 positive (Head et al., 2012), which may also reduce the risk of cerebral amyloid angiopathy and microbleeds (Poels et al., 2010).
The recent “consensus statement” of the European College of Sport Science indicates that the difference between NFO and OTS is the amount of time needed for performance restoration and not the type or duration of training stress or degree of impairment.1 In essence, it is generally thought that symptoms of OTS, such as fatigue, performance decline and mood disturbances, are more severe than those of NFO. However, there is no scientific evidence to either confirm or refute this suggestion.1 The distinction between NFO and OTS is most of the time based on “time to recover”. Hence, there is a need for objective, immediately available evidence that the athlete is indeed experiencing OTS.
Evidence from HIIT studies conducted under controlled laboratory conditions has provided proof-of-concept of efficacy [9]. However, it has been argued that HIIT has high efficacy but low effectiveness [16], and long-term exercise interventions carried out under free-living conditions have been asked for to investigate whether HIIT is feasible as a public health initiative among older adults [9, 16]. Our data showed that both training groups reported on average more than two exercise sessions per week throughout the year. Approximately 60% of the sessions in the HIIT group were performed with a self-reported high-intensity (≥15 Borg scale), indicating that older adults are able to perform HIIT over a long time-period without strict supervision. However, women had a lower proportion of sessions with high-intensity exercise compared to men. This result is in line with previous findings that women (aged 60–67 years) are less likely than men to prefer vigorous physical activity [23].
Aerobic exercise is any physical activity that uses large muscle groups and causes the body to use more oxygen than it would while resting.[3] The goal of aerobic exercise is to increase cardiovascular endurance.[4] Examples of aerobic exercise include running, cycling, swimming, brisk walking, skipping rope, rowing, hiking, playing tennis, continuous training, and long slow distance training.[3]
This classic move helps flatten the tummy by using your abs efficiently. Hold on behind the knees, scoop the belly in, and curl down to the floor to get into position. Now curl the head and shoulders up slightly, lower back still pressed to the floor. Pump the arms up and down in small motions at your sides. Breathe in for five and out for five until you hit 50 pumps. Sit up and repeat for a total of 100 pumps.

6.  If an exercise can be done for more than 90 seconds, increase the resistance so that momentary muscular failure occurs within 45 - 90 seconds (this is considered "high-intensity" exercise). If you can do sit-ups for ten minutes, the intensity is insufficient to cross that threshold mentioned above, and you're just wasting valuable physiological resources. If you can't do even one rep, reduce the resistance (i.e. if doing a push-up, change from being on your toes to on your knees, or start from the top and slowly lower yourself; if using a machine, choose a lower setting; if using free-weights, pick a lower weight; if doing a chin-up, use a chair to boost yourself up to the top, then take your feet off the chair and slowly lower yourself).