To qualify for inclusion, studies had to be level 1 or level 2 (randomized controlled trials); had to compare rehabilitation interventions, such as exercise or manual therapy, with other treatments or placebo; had to include validated outcome measures of pain, function, or disability; and had to be limited to individuals with diagnosed impingement syndrome. Impingement syndrome was determined by a positive impingement sign per Neer or Hawkins criteria, or both. Articles were excluded if they addressed other shoulder conditions (eg, calcific tendinosis, full-thickness rotator cuff tears, adhesive capsulitis, osteoarthritis), addressed postoperative management, were retrospective studies or case series, or used other outcome measures.

Although there is research concluding the effectiveness of the Alfredson protocol, some individuals find the completion of 180 repetitions of exercise daily to be difficult to achieve.  A study in the February 2014 issue of the Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy indicated that a modified version of the Alfredson protocol with a "do as much as tolerated" approach achieved similar positive results as the full 180 repetition protocol.
Pull-ups have become the quintessential move to any CrossFit workout. HOW TO DO IT: To complete a pull-up, start by hanging from a secured bar with your hands in an overhand grip (palm pointing outward, away from your body) and slightly wider than shoulder-width apart. While squeezing your traps together and engaging your abs, pull yourself up to the bar so that your chin passes over. MUSCLES USED: Back, core, shoulders and chest.
If your immune system is constantly fighting both its internal and external environment, it can be more challenging to live, work and exercise with the greater cognitive dysfunction, headaches, allergies, tender lymph nodes and both joint and muscle pain.  Yes, I do get it. However, I want you to be successful. Living myself with M.E, and lyme co-infections, the right approach is essential to making exercise work for us, not against us. 
Around 1900, Tasmanian-born Australian professional reciter and theatrical producer Frederick Alexander developed a novel methodology to harmonize full-body functional movements. As a child, Alexander suffered respiratory ailments, leading to the initial purpose of developing the method – to normalize his personal voice function in order to materialize a stage performance dream. In 1902, Alexander established the Sydney Dramatic and Operatic Conservatorium and in 1904, moved to London to spread his teaching method. During the first years, Alexander focused on teaching ‘full chest breathing’ techniques mainly to stage artists and people with breathing pathologies.19 Staring J. Frederick Matthias Alexander 1869-1955. The Origins and History of the Alexander Technique. A medical historical analysis of F.M. Alexander’s life, work, technique, and writings. Nijmegen: Radboud Universiteit; 2005. [Google Scholar] However, he soon discovered that retrieving the natural ‘conscious control’ via mindful postures and movements resulted in benefits not only for the vocal health and performance but also the health and performance of the whole body and mind.20 Alexander FM. Man's supreme inheritance. London: Methuen; 1910. [Google Scholar] This holistic evolvement transformed the newly formed ‘Alexander Technique’ into a general remedy and preventative tool suitable for all populations. Alexander explained in his 1910 book ‘Man’s Supreme Inheritance:’20 Alexander FM. Man's supreme inheritance. London: Methuen; 1910. [Google Scholar]
I've always wanted to try out the trendy fitness classes at Physique 57 in NYC, but they run a pretty penny. Now, the infamous Physique 57 technique (certain muscles are targeted, overloaded to point of fatigue and then stretched for relief) is available to all in this 30-minute workout. It was just enough to make me realize why people are obsessed with the classes and left me — especially my glutes — sore the next day.
Squat Jacks are a surefire way to tone your legs and butt ,as well as your inner and outer thighs and provide a serious cardio blast and calorie burn in just 30 seconds. Marks says to do the following: Begin in a squat position, with your feet slightly wider than hip-width and place your hands behind your head, elbows wide. Keeping your core engaged, jump your feet in together, while maintaining a squat position. Quickly jump your feet back wide to the starting position. Be sure to keep your knees behind your toes the entire time.
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This online exercise and equipment guide is an interactive reference tool that describes how to perform all pieces of resistance training exercise equipment in the ARC with proper technique and form. It provides descriptions on how to correctly perform other basic resistance exercises which involve dumbbells and free weights. To use this “muscle map” you may search using the name of the exercise, the anatomical muscle group, or the body part. You may also search by location of interest, including the Fitness Lab, Wellness Lab, and the Circuit upstairs.
I purchased Insanity a few years back and only lasted for 3-4 workouts. The workouts were too difficult for me and although I enjoyed it, I just failed to commit to it. Fast forward to July of this year..... I am not even sure why I attempted it again, but I am glad I did. First things first; this program is physically challenging to the point that I would recommend anyone going into it be cleared by their doctor BEFORE starting. Seeing a physician after you've injured yourself is the equivalent of closing the barn after the horses got out! There, it's been said. Now on to my review of this product.
The plank is a yoga position that is basically a push up at the top of the action; you're suspending your body in a straight line from your toes while holding your body at an incline with your arms pressing straight up from the ground. Better yet, you're squeezing your abdominal muscles while you're holding the position. This works the transverse abdominis, the deepest-lying of the abdominal muscles. Though not visible, strengthening it will enhance your core stability and posture, both of which add to the effect of an upright profile.
Bodyrock.tv is one of the forerunners in online fitness. This popular health and exercise blog is dedicated to weight loss, fitness, beauty, food, love and relationships. "Bodyrockers" find daily workouts that are either laid out with descriptions and pictures, or that are instructed in video format. All of the workouts can be done at home with minimal equipment.
This powerful upper-body toner can be done on a mat, reformer, or Wunda chair. If using a mat, sit with your legs straight in front of you, feet together and flexed. Press your hands flat on the mat, look down, and use your upper body strength to lift your backside and upper legs. Swing yourself forward and backward before lowering slowly to the mat. Do five reps.
After options vest, you may purchase the company stock at the option price any time before the options expire. But exercises, as well as sales, may be prohibited during any "blackout" periods, or allowed only during window periods. Company policies must be carefully followed, as well as federal and state securities laws. Optionholders are responsible for keeping up with current insider trading regulations.

As mentioned earlier, aerobic exercise is primarily characterized by activities that cause the heart to pump at an accelerated pace for an extended period of time. In addition to referring to activities that engages the heart, aerobic exercise refers to physical exercise that either improves or involves the body's oxygen consumption. When cardio exercise is used alongside a healthy diet and anaerobic exercise, it can contribute to a healthy life. Cardio is a particularly good category of exercise to perform in order to shed pounds, as cardio exercise burns fat as a fuel source. Fats, along with oxygen and carbohydrates, together form the fuel source used by all cells: adenosine triphosphate (ATP). For some aerobic exercise routines to get you started, check out this great list and this informative page.
Conclusions: Rediscovering the Western mind–body exercise movement is hoped to facilitate official healthcare establishment recognition of this kind of training as an integral entity. This may widen research opportunities and consolidate approaches toward: optimal musculoskeletal rehabilitation and injury prevention, promotion of a healthy active lifestyle environment in the modern world, and enhancement of the natural pain-free human athletic look, feel, and performance.

18.  If you experience pain while working out, STOP! Although moving slowly drastically decreases the probability of injury, common sense dictates that if you feel pain, stop and try again a week later. Maybe you weren't hydrated enough, and maybe you need to reduce the resistance. And pain is not to be confused with a "burn". The expression, "No pain, no gain" is misleading. Pain is a warning to stop. A burning sensation simply means you've worked the muscle very intensely.

"You will never get bored," said one tester, with the push-yourself workouts in the 21 Day Fix—seven 30-minute sessions ranging from high-intensity cardio-strength circuits to Pilates. Each routine "amps up familiar moves" to crank your calorie burn. Another tester was wowed that "so many different modifications and options were shown to help me switch up my workout." There's an included diet plan for those on a mission to trim.
The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology has published "The Canadian Physical Activity, Fitness & Lifestyle Approach", which details fitness assessment protocols. One such protocol, the mCAFT, is designed to give information about the aerobic fitness of a person, while using minimal equipment. The subject works by lifting its own body weight up and down double steps (40.6 cm in height total) while listening to set cadences from a compact disc. The end-stage of the age and gender specific stepping rate requires 85% of the age-predicted maximum heart rate. The heart rate increases approximately in a linear fashion from 50% to 100% of maximal oxygen intake. The heart rate does not decrease significantly during the first fifteen seconds of recovery. Thus, one can predict an aerobic fitness using the heart rate right after exercise of a known sub-maximal rate of working.
Static Hold. Static holds are familiar to some as a great strengthening technique used in yoga. They can be performed with bodyweight movements — get in the top of a plank or a deep squat position and hold — or they can be done by holding weights (in a slightly contracted position or with full lock out). Our tip? Time how long you can hold a plank to see improvement from week to week.
Interestingly, one of our subjects presented both a CV and a time to exhaustion greater than the other subjects. As both CV and time to exhaustion are known to increase when the intensity of the exercise decreases [20], it is likely that this subject did not reach its true peak power output during the incremental test, and then performed the three time to exhaustion tests at an intensity below 85% of peak power output. This result is of particular importance for future research aiming to manipulate endurance performance using this protocol. Indeed, when the true peak power output is not reached during the incremental test, due to an increase in variability, it might be harder to detect significant changes in muscle endurance. Therefore, in order to better understand the variability in reaching the true peak power output of subjects, further studies should investigate the reliability of the incremental test used in the present study.
Since this move is more difficult, you may sometimes use a kipping motion to propel your body higher into the air in order for your chest to touch the bar. HOW TO DO IT: Start by hanging from a secured bar with your hands slightly wider than shoulder-width apart. While squeezing the traps together and engaging the abs, pull yourself up to the bar and touch your chest to the bar. MUSCLES USED: Back, core, shoulders and chest.
Don’t blink or you just might miss this seven-minute, high-energy dance workout with Vixen Dance for Elle.com. Featuring Janet, Shanut, and Carolina, this dance cardio session will have you sweating in no time. The Vixen Workout website describes its style as “a dance fitness format that uses commercial choreography, killer music remixes, and stage lighting so you can experience yourself as a performer.” This fast-paced routine will definitely burn some calories.
Add tai chi to your exercise routine. Tai chi is a Chinese martial art that involves sequences of slow movements. It can help improve your balance, flexibility, and concentration, and it’s a good way to manage stress. Since it’s a low impact form of exercise, it’s a good option if you’re elderly, have a history of medical issues, or have recently suffered an injury.[28]
Jump up ^ Gallaugher, P. E; Thorarensen, H; Kiessling, A; Farrell, A. P (2001). "Effects of high intensity exercise training on cardiovascular function, oxygen uptake, internal oxygen transport and osmotic balance in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) during critical speed swimming". The Journal of Experimental Biology. 204 (Pt 16): 2861–72. PMID 11683441.
One of the most recognized MMB pioneers was Joseph Hubertus Pilates, born near Dusseldorf in Germany to a prize-winning gymnastics father and naturopath mother. According to Pilates historians’, he was a bullied child who suffered asthma and a weak body that he overcame as a teenager by learning anatomy from medical books and the practice of sports such as wrestling and gymnastics. During this process, he developed a model body, which was even displayed in anatomy classes.39,40 Balanced Body, Inc. [Internet]. Origins of Pilates. 2015 Aug 30 [cited 2015 Aug 30]. Available from: https://www.pilates.com/BBAPP/V/pilates/origins-of-pilates.html.

Choose 10 different exercises - For cardio, focus on exercises with different levels of intensity. For example, you might alternate a high-intensity exercise (such as jumping jacks or burpees) with an easier move (such as marching in place). For strength training, choose compound exercises such as squats, lunges, pushups and dips to work the entire body. Exercise ideas: Step by Step Cardio Exercises, Step by Step Body Weight Exercises
Spark People shares short videos for all different types of workouts. There are several categories -- Abs, Cardio, Yoga and Pilates, as well as others that diver into healthy cooking and eating ideas. These workouts are great when you are pinched for time. Choose a 10-12 minute routine and squeeze in some activity where you normally would have skipped it altogether.
Squat between putting away dishes. During repetitive physical activities such as putting away dishes or loading the dishwasher, throw in squat, lunge, or other repetitive exercise between each repetition. This way, you'll naturally end up doing repetitions of exercises that need to be performed in repetition. putting each dish away or in the dishwasher.
The lateral raise (or shoulder fly) is performed while standing or seated, with hands hanging down holding weights, by lifting them out to the sides until just below the level of the shoulders. A slight variation in the lifts can hit the deltoids even harder, while moving upwards, just turn the hands slightly downwards, keeping the last finger higher than the thumb. This is an isolation exercise for the deltoids. Also works the forearms and traps.

Pull-ups have become the quintessential move to any CrossFit workout. HOW TO DO IT: To complete a pull-up, start by hanging from a secured bar with your hands in an overhand grip (palm pointing outward, away from your body) and slightly wider than shoulder-width apart. While squeezing your traps together and engaging your abs, pull yourself up to the bar so that your chin passes over. MUSCLES USED: Back, core, shoulders and chest.


Between August 2012 and June 2013, all men and women born between years 1936 to 1942 (aged 70–77 years), with a permanent address in the municipality of Trondheim, Norway, were invited to participate in a randomized controlled trial, the Generation 100 study. The primary aim of Generation 100 is to determine the effect of five years of exercise training on morbidity and mortality. The Generation 100 study protocol and study sample characteristics have been published previously [19].
Remember Billy Blanks, the guy behind the Tae Bo craze? Now his son, Billy Blanks, Jr. is getting in on the family business too. Along with his wife, Sharon Catherine Blanks, Billy Jr. will help you learn various types of dance styles in this fun-packed DVD. The duo takes you through six 5-minute cardio workouts utilizing dance styles from all over the world: hip-hop, Bollywood, African, disco, country, and "old-school" cardio. It's designed for the whole family so kids can join in too!
Anaerobic exercise differs from aerobic exercise in that it is comprised by short bursts of a high-intensity activity such as that repeated during strength training. While aerobic exercise uses oxygen for fuel (an early definition of aerobic is, after all, "living only in the presence of oxygen"), anaerobic exercise draws its fuel from carbohydrates. Anaerobic exercise also produces lactic acid, unlike aerobic exercise. To get started with some anaerobic exercises, check out this list of anaerobic exercises you can do anywhere. While anaerobic exercise does not burn as many calories as aerobic exercise burns, it will still help to improve respiratory and cardiovascular fitness. Additionally, because anaerobic exercise depletes energy more quickly than the blood can replenish the muscles' oxygen, the body's anaerobic metabolism kicks in, burning glucose as fuel. Even after the the anaerobic activity has stopped, the metabolism remains increased for up to several hours. If anaerobic exercise is repeated often, it will even have an effect on your resting metabolic rate. This will cause your body to burn more calories in general—even when you're sleeping.
* Respect the body's design when exercising. We are capable of doing many things the body was not designed to do. And this is also true when it comes to physical activity. We're designed to walk, climb, and sprint. We walked a lot back in the good old days when we foraged in paradise, we climbed to get the sweetest fruit, and we occasionally sprinted to escape danger. Take a cue from little kids: they love to climb, when they run they sprint (try to get them to do distance running), and they can walk just fine. When we do the activities we're designed to do, that's when we'll be in great shape... we won't be under-active, and we won't be over-active, and both are bad for the body, for different sets of reasons.
Two moves is better than one, right? You may want to do this move on a mat or a towel for padding. Start in a high plank position with core tight. Lower onto both forearms at the same time, maintaining a tight core and level hips. Now push back up onto hands at the same time to return to starting position. Finish by drawing right knee into chest, then left knee into chest, doing a mountain climber.
The world population is ageing and the number of older adults with chronic health conditions and physical limitations is expected to increase. This, in turn, could lead to an increased burden on healthcare services [1]. Regular physical activity is an important component of successful ageing and reduces the risk of developing several age- and lifestyle related diseases such as cardiovascular disease, dementia and type 2 diabetes [2–7]. However, making older adults exercise and keeping them in exercise programs is a major challenge [8]. Understanding how older adults prefer to exercise may help developing tailored exercise programs and increase sustained exercise participation in ageing populations.

^ Jump up to: a b Cooney GM, Dwan K, Greig CA, Lawlor DA, Rimer J, Waugh FR, McMurdo M, Mead GE (September 2013). "Exercise for depression". Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 9 (9): CD004366. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004366.pub6. PMID 24026850. Exercise is moderately more effective than a control intervention for reducing symptoms of depression, but analysis of methodologically robust trials only shows a smaller effect in favour of exercise. When compared to psychological or pharmacological therapies, exercise appears to be no more effective, though this conclusion is based on a few small trials.


This is the first review to have focused on exercise as an add-on strategy in the treatment of MDD. Our findings corroborate some previous observations that were based on few studies and which were difficult to generalize.41,51,73,92,93 Given the results of the present article, it seems that exercise might be an effective strategy to enhance the antidepressant effect of medication treatments. Moreover, we hypothesize that the main role of exercise on treatment-resistant depression is in inducing neurogenesis by increasing BDNF expression, as was demonstrated by several recent studies.

In the third week of the program we step it up to a three-day training split: Train all “pushing” bodyparts (chest, shoulders, triceps) on Day 1; hit the “pulling” bodyparts (back, biceps) and abs on Day 2; and work your lower body (quads, glutes, hamstrings, calves) on Day 3. As in Week 2, you train each bodypart twice a week, so you’ll hit the gym six days this week.
Environmental approaches appear promising: signs that encourage the use of stairs, as well as community campaigns, may increase exercise levels.[126] The city of Bogotá, Colombia, for example, blocks off 113 kilometers (70 mi) of roads on Sundays and holidays to make it easier for its citizens to get exercise. Such pedestrian zones are part of an effort to combat chronic diseases and to maintain a healthy BMI.[127][128]
Two incremental graded exercise tests until exhaustion were performed, with 4 h of rest in between. One hour before each test, the athletes received a standardised meal (2315 kJ, 73% carbohydrate, 19% protein, 8% fat). Athletes arrived in the laboratory at 07:00 after an overnight fast. The first blood sample was collected as they arrived. Immediately after the first exercise test, the second blood sample was drawn. The third and fourth blood samples were drawn before and immediately after the second test. A schematic overview of the protocol can be found in fig 1. Because it is known that venepuncture increases blood prolactin, going back to baseline within 30 min, blood was drawn before and after each test (four punctures) creating the same “stress” in each situation. The study protocol was approved by the university ethical committee.
DOMS stands for delayed onset muscle soreness, which is the soreness you feel the day or two after a hard workout. This happens because when you’re working out you’re damaging muscle fibers (that’s a good thing!). The muscle then repairs and rebuilds and that’s how you get stronger. The soreness and pain you feel from DOMS comes from the chemicals that set off pain receptors during the repair process, Robert Hyldahl, Ph.D., an exercise physiologist at Brigham Young University, previously explained to SELF. This soreness may last anywhere from 24 to 72 hours after your workout. (Here’s what to do when DOMS kicks in after a workout.)
The relation between the increase in oxygen uptake (VO2) and increase in work rate (WR) between unloaded pedaling and maximal work during incremental cycle ergometer exercise was studied in normal men, men with uncomplicated systemic hypertension and ambulatory men with various cardiovascular diseases. The postulation was that impaired peripheral oxygen delivery would reduce the ratio of the ... [Show full abstract]Read more
I’ve recently been using an excellent iPhone app called 7-Minute Workout, which has totally changed my life. Its simple, voice-guided power workouts make it easy to exercise in my bedroom using only my body and some basic props, and the app’s game mechanics help make the experience fun rather than a chore. The best part is that, no matter how busy I am, I always have time for a seven-minute workout. I’m currently rocking a three-month daily workout streak and counting.
In fig 3A–D, absolute hormone concentrations are presented for the NFO and the OTS groups. Visual inspection of the data led to the conclusion that resting concentrations cortisol, ACTH and PRLwere higher for OTS patients comparedwithNFO. However, reactions to exercise tests did not differ between the groups. Resting hormone concentrations were tested with independent t tests. Only for ACTH, the t test gave a value >2 (ie, t8=2.6; p<0.05), meaning that only for ACTH, the difference between the groups was more than twice as large as the SE. Sensitivity of resting cortisol, ACTH and PRL was four out of five (cutoff 175 μg l−1), four out of five (cutoff 40 ng l−1) and two out of five (cutoff 50 IU l−1), respectively (table 2). Sensitivity for detection of NFO was three out of five, four out of five and three out of five respectively for cortisol, ACTH and PRL, respectively (table 2).
Alexander shared the main goal of other MMB pioneers, to harmonize normal functional movements; however, he differed in his approach of teaching the movements. According to the Alexander Technique, the development of nervous system control precedes the functional improvements, unlike other MMB schools in which the nervous system control is developed secondarily by doing the exercises in the proper manner.21 Pilates and Alexander [Internet]. Macy JA. Alexander Technique and the Pilates method of movement re-education: A biomechanical perspective. 2010 Dec 6 [cited 2015 Aug 30]. Available from: http://pilatesandalexander.com/articles/macy/. [Google Scholar] In 1914, Alexander expanded his teaching in New York and returned to England in 1925. By the end of his career, he had cultivated a long list of loyal second-generation teachers who preserved the Alexander Technique legacy and widespread acceptance until today.19,21 Staring J. Frederick Matthias Alexander 1869-1955. The Origins and History of the Alexander Technique. A medical historical analysis of F.M. Alexander’s life, work, technique, and writings. Nijmegen: Radboud Universiteit; 2005.

A compound exercise is a move that incorporates multiple muscle groups, like lunges, deadlifts, and squats. It may also refer to two moves being strung together, like a bicep curl to a shoulder press. Compound exercises are efficient for increasing overall muscle mass and burning calories (because they require more effort to complete), as opposed to isolation exercises, which focus on working just one muscle group (like a bicep curl).
Each reliability session took place on a Monday, Wednesday and Friday morning at the same time and within the same week. All subjects were given written instructions to drink 35 ml of water per kilogram of body weight, sleep for at least 7 h, refrain from the consumption of alcohol, and avoid any vigorous exercise the day before each visit. Participants were also instructed to avoid any caffeine and nicotine for at least 3 h before testing. Finally, subjects were instructed to consume a set breakfast (2 slices of toast spread with margarine or butter, 250 ml of orange juice, and a banana) 1 h before all testing sessions. At each visit to the lab, subjects were asked to complete a pre-test checklist to ascertain that they had complied with the instructions given to them, and were asked to report any pain or soreness experienced in their leg (to check for the presence of previous session-induced muscle damage). None of our subjects reported leg muscle pain or soreness at the beginning of each session.
This is a two-fold explanation: 1) how long it takes to train per session and 2) how frequently we recommend training. We believe – and basic muscle physiology principles state – that the best way to stimulate a muscle is by short, intense bouts of exercise. Not in long, drawn-out workouts, which simply can’t be as intense. Ideally, a resistance training workout should only last 20 to 30 minutes. Longer workouts are typically less intense and can release catabolic hormones (which we don’t want). When it comes to exercise, “more” is not necessarily “better.” Working out is merely a method of stimulating your results. Your actual gains or improvements occur when your body “recovers” from the exercise. If you exercise before your muscles are completely recovered from a bout of exercise, you’re just … beating a dead horse. You need to find the right “dose” of exercise for you. Too little exercise limits your progress, but too much or too frequent exercise doesn’t allow your body to recover properly and may hinder your progress as well. The ideal frequency of your training may change over time based on things like your specific genetics or how intensely you train. Our clients typically train only once or twice per week, with only a handful ever training more frequently than that. The best way to know how frequently you should train is through very detailed and accurate record keeping. Your personal trainer at SMX will always monitor your training. Once a fair amount of data is compiled by your trainer, we can dial in and fine-tune how frequently and what intensities are ideal for you to maximize your results.
So you think you can't dance? Now you can—and get "a good cardio workout," one reviewer said, to boot. You'll quickly love the hip-hop mix that makes up the 45-minute sesh in Groov3's Dance Sweat Live. The easy-to-learn choreography is broken down step-by-step for newbies before each sequence, "which allows you to gain confidence in your dancing as if nobody's watching" but hustles along so that "you're sweating" by the time you get into the rhythm.
The squat is performed by squatting down with a weight held across the upper back under neck and standing up straight again. This is a compound exercise that also involves the glutes (buttocks) and, to a lesser extent, the hamstrings, calves, and the lower back. Lifting belts are sometimes used to help support the lower back. The freeweight squat is one of 'The Big Three' powerlifting exercises, along with the deadlift and the bench press.[2]
The mental benefits of Pilates include an increase in the ability to focus. It takes a great deal of concentration to coordinate your breath and body position during workouts. In fact, Joseph Pilates often referred to his method as “the thinking man’s exercise” due to the improvement in memory and other cognitive functions that results from doing it. A clear mind also reduces stress levels, which translates to an improvement in your overall health.
Brovold et al. [7] supposed the importance of an exercise is based on a high-intensity and continuous monitoring model because in their research a nonmonitored home-based group did not improve their physical fitness as much as the monitored group that accomplished a high-intensity aerobic exercise adjusted by means of the Borg Scale and a musical pace [25]. However, Brovold et al. [7], despite an exercise protocol with a high-intensity aerobic interval (HIA), found a small effect on SFT. This may be due to the fact that the exercise protocol used by Brovold et al. [7] did not interact favorably with the skills tested by SFT. Thus, a positive relationship among vigorous physical exercise [17] or HIA exercise [7] and the functional abilities tested by the SFT is not fully evident. On the contrary, the vigorous exercise protocol used here enhanced 5 out of 6 of the SFT and seems to be more focused than the aforementioned one. The small effect of vigorous physical exercise through the 8-foot up and go test is not fully clear and may depend on several factors: (i) a large standard deviation at T0 due to the presence of two subjects who showed a very low functional capacity; (ii) inadequacy of the exercises to improve this ability; and/or (iii) inadequate sensitivity of an 8-foot up and go test. In a recent study by Furtado et al. [15] conducted on a large number of elderly females, even though the SFT was used at baseline and after 8 months from an intervention program of multimodal exercise training (3 days per week), not all skills tested were found improved. However, according to a meta-analysis [11] that included 18 different exercise studies, even a small positive effect can be considered to be of great value in this group of individuals who are at risk of further functional decline. In conclusion, the present study shows that vigorous physical exercise in healthy elderly people provides significant improvements in the majority of the different skills assessed by the SFT.
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