Video Abstract for the ESSR 46.3 article “The Microvasculature and Skeletal Muscle Healthin Aging” from authors Rian Q. Landers-Ramos and Steven J. Prior. Aging and aging-related declines in physical activity are associated with physical and metabolic impairments. Skeletal muscle capillarization is reduced in sedentary older adults, may contribute to impairments in skeletal muscle, and is modifiable by exercise training. This article examines the hypothesis that preservation of skeletal muscle capillarization is essential to maintain metabolism, fitness, and function with aging.

Remember, the real trick to getting stronger is to progressively move more and more weight, so keep in mind that these tricks and tips are meant to supplement that goal Fundamentals of resistance training: progression and exercise prescription. Kraemer, W.J., Ratamess, M.A. Human Performance Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA; MEdicine and Science in Sports and Exercise; 2004 Apr;36(4):674-88.. Try out some new techniques and bulldoze that training plateau like a beast. Have you tried any of these techniques? What techniques help you build strength? Tell us in the comments below!
I've been strength training for over 15 years now. In college, between martial arts and four months of lifting weights for 6 hours per week I gave myself overuse injuries in my shoulders and knee. I've tried everything, including Mike Mentzer's books, Arnold Schwarzennegger's Bodybuilding Bible, Stuart McRobert's Beyond Brawn, Sisco and Little's Power Factor Training, routines from Men's Health, Flex, and Muscle & Fitness magazines - you name it. Super Slow (and its cousins Slow Burn and Power of 10) are the ONLY form of exercise I can handle for more than two months without having those pains flare up with a vengeance and force me to quit. I've done Super Slow for years without the slightest ache except for normal muscle soreness.
Your muscles perform several functions during isotonic exercise. They push, pull, bend and straighten. For instance, when you bend your arm at the elbow to perform a bicep curl, you flex your bicep. When you unbend your arm at the elbow to perform a triceps kickback, you extend your triceps. When you lie on your back and push a weight up from your chest, you extend your pectoral muscles. When you perform a pull up, you flex your back muscles. Muscles that perform opposite functions of the same region (such as biceps and triceps flexing and extending the arm) are called complimentary muscle groups. When performing isotonic exercises, it is important to balance exercises between complimentary muscle groups in order to prevent injury and develop balanced strength throughout your body.

Dewayne Riggins, celebrity trainer and Founder and CEO of Inspirational Fitness, says you can work your quads and glutes with reverse lunges—30 seconds on each leg. How to do them: Stand in an upright position and then step back with one leg; bend knees as low as you can. Drop your back knee to one inch off the ground or as low as you can and be sure front knee is not leaning over the foot. Repeat with the other leg.
Ever notice how dancers have killer abs, despite never hitting the floor for crunches? There’s a reason for that — every move a dancer makes engages their abs. This quick workout with Heather Graham of BeFit walks you through the moves you need to shake your body like a dancer while getting an effective core workout, not to mention your fair share of cardio. This is a low-impact routine perfect for those just getting back into exercise.

More recently, exercise was regarded as a beneficial force in the 19th century. After 1860, Archibald MacLaren opened a gymnasium at the University of Oxford and instituted a training regimen for 12 military officials at the university. This regimen was later assimilated into the training of the British Army.[145] Several mass exercise movements were started in the early twentieth century as well. The first and most significant of these in the UK was the Women's League of Health and Beauty, founded in 1930 by Mary Bagot Stack, that had 166,000 members in 1937.[146]
Negative Sets. Weight training works with and against gravity. The motion towards the bar in a pull-up is called the "concentric movement," while heading back towards the ground is an "eccentric movement," or the negative portion of the movement. Resisting the pull of gravity during the negative porting of the movement taxes the muscles in a different way Myofibrillar disruption following acute concentric and eccentric resistance exercise in stregth-trained men. Gibala, M.J., Interisano, S.A., Tarnopolsky, M.A., et al. Department of Kinesiology (Neurology and Neurological Rehabilitation), McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmocology. 2000 Aug;78(8):656-61.. At the end of a long set, switch to just performing negatives (with a partner's help on the way up) or work towards getting those difficult bodyweight movements (like a pull up or dip) by only performing the negative of the movement. Sounds easy? Just try it!

While the focus of Pilates is strength training, you'll get some cardio in with moves like this. Stand with your belly pulled in and your arms overhead. Inhale and lower your head, bending the knees and swinging the arms back. Exhale and jump up with straight legs, reaching the arms overhead. Land with the knees slightly bent and return quickly to starting position. Do 8-10 reps at a rapid pace. You should be out of breath when you finish.

These leisurely pursuits have their place, but there’s no substitute for the intensity of intervals and strength training or plyometrics. “When you reduce your intensity, athletic performance declines,” he says. “Cardiovascular fitness and other physiological metrics drop off.” Bone density suffers, too — particularly in women. In short, when you stop pushing yourself, you’ll become less fit, less healthy.

Exercise is a key part of staying healthy, but figuring out how to get more active can be tough. If you’re not used to physical activity, start slow. Go for 10 to 15 minute walks, and work your way up to briskly walking or jogging for 30 minutes daily. Try adding strengthening exercises 2 or 3 days per week, and consider boosting your flexibility with yoga or Pilates classes. Whenever you work out, always listen to your body’s limits, and ask your doctor for advice if you have a history of any medical issues.
Major variants: reverse ~ (curling the pelvis towards the shoulders), twisting ~ or side ~ (lifting one shoulder at a time; emphasis is on the obliques), cable ~ (pulling down on a cable machine while kneeling), sit-up ~ (have [chest] touch your knees), vertical crunch (propping up to dangle legs and pulling knees to the [ chest] or keeping legs straight and pulling up legs to a 90 degree position). Reverse hanging crunch (using gravity boots or slings to hang head down and pulling to a 90 or 180 degree form)
2) Another critique related to safety (and one that betrays my affection for yoga) is the BREATH is not emphasized nearly enough. Breath and movement go hand in hand with yoga. This helps give much needed oxygen to the tissues when their demands are the highest, but it also helps the person move with the body instead of jerking the body into cranked up positions. I believe this is another spot that could contribute to injuries.
You’re only a week into the program, yet you’ll begin to train different bodyparts on different days with a two-day training split (meaning the entire body is trained over the course of two days, rather than one as in the first week). You’ll train a total of four days this week; the split includes two upper-body days (Monday and Thursday) and two lower-body days (Tuesday and Friday), and each bodypart is trained twice. Wednesday, Saturday and Sunday will be your recovery days.
How would you like to get more out of your workouts? If your main goal is to burn fat, many traditional exercises and training styles may not be the best route for you. Typically when I'm at the gym and I look around I see a bunch of people doing exercises that don't really match up with their goals. If you're trying to get some bigger biceps you shouldn't be on the eliptical doing hours of cardio and conversely if you're trying to lose some weight and burn some belly fat you shouldn't be smashing out set after set of bicep curls. Exercises and training styles are like tools and before you just assume that watching one or two rocky movies is all the knowledge you need on exercising let's make sure that you've chosen the right tool for the job or I should for your goal. If your goal is to lose belly fat I hate to break it to you, but there is no exercise that can directly target the fat on your belly, but there are plenty of exercise methods that can indirectly burn the fat from your belly, and in this video I'll be going over ten of these methods....These training methods will help you burn more fat during & after your workout. Let's start with the very first one & that's peripheral heart action training. This is my favorite way to do all my weight training workouts, and I highly suggest that if you're trying to lose some belly fat you incorporate this style of training right away. In general your workouts for the week should be a mixture of some more aerobic & some more anaerobic workouts, meaning some of them will be geared more towards lifting heavy weights & others should be geared towards improving your cardiovascular function. But what you'll notice is that during your heavy weight training days, you wind up taking longer breaks & not breathing quite as heavy. Sometimes after some weight training workouts besides the soreness that you might feel in your muscles you may not feel like you worked out at all. So that's where peripheral heart action training comes into play. It helps incorporate an element of cardio into your weight training workout without you having to sacrifice the amount of weight your lifting. So you won't get weaker, but you'll be able to burn much more calories & accomplish much more in a shorter period of time. The best way to do this is by combining an upper body & a lower body movement into one set. For example you can combine a bench press with a squat. So you would do six to eight reps on the bench press & then right away with no break you would do squats for six to eight reps. You would perform both of these exercises with a heavy weight load & you would only take a break after completing both of them. With peripheral heart action training what you're doing is taking the blood that your heart would normally just have to pump to your chest & arms if you were just doing bench press by itself & what your doing is your forcing your body to pull & pump all that blood back down to your legs right after your set of bench without any break or recovery. This makes your heart work much harder allowing you to get your heart rate & breathing rate higher & this will burn more calories & fat in the process. Now let's say that you don't want to work legs & upper body in the same day you want to focus on each on separate days. Well the good news is that peripheral heart action training doesn't only work only if you combine an upper & a lower body movement. It'll also work if you combine two movements that work opposing muscle groups. For example if you combine chest & back movements together with no break. Or if you do quad & hamstring movements together with no break your heart will still have to work much harder to push the blood from the anterior part of your body to the posterior part of your body. So peripheral heart action training try it out. The second exercise style that can help you burn a lot more belly fat is known as cardio acceleration training. We actually have a whole hour long class at our gyms dedicated to this type of training because it's so effective. Once again it involves super setting two exercises. Except this time instead of doing two weight training exercises back to back we're combining a weight training exercise with a cardio exercise with no break. So an example of this would be to perform a set of barbell squats with heavy weight for let's say six to ten reps & then immediately with no break once you rack the bar you go right into high knees for thirty to forty five seconds. Then take a break & repeat for three to four sets
Don’t blink or you just might miss this seven-minute, high-energy dance workout with Vixen Dance for Elle.com. Featuring Janet, Shanut, and Carolina, this dance cardio session will have you sweating in no time. The Vixen Workout website describes its style as “a dance fitness format that uses commercial choreography, killer music remixes, and stage lighting so you can experience yourself as a performer.” This fast-paced routine will definitely burn some calories.
The second aim of this study was to describe the isokinetic muscle fatigue induced by high intensity OLDE and its recovery. Firstly, the absence of isometric KF MVC torque decrease confirms that our exercise only solicits the knee extensors and does not involve the knee flexors. Secondly, EMG RMS measured during KE MVCs shortly after exhaustion and during the recovery period was not altered by high intensity OLDE, confirming the results of a previous study [8]. Therefore, as a decrease in knee extensors force production capacity can be observed without concomitant changes in EMG signal, our data combined with the data of a previous study [8] suggest that EMG signal cannot be used to investigate dynamic exercise-induced muscle fatigue. The lack of changes in EMG signal is likely to be caused by a potentiation of the maximal evoked muscular wave (M-wave) induced by high intensity OLDE [8]. Finally, according to our hypothesis, isokinetic KE MVC torque quickly recovered and plateaued after exhaustion (within ~ 30 s at 60 and 100 deg/s, and within ~ 50 s at 140 deg/s). This quick recovery in torque production capacity is likely to be associated with recovery in both central and peripheral fatigue. This assumption is supported by one previous study in our laboratory demonstrating that not only peripheral and central fatigue, but also cortical and spinal excitability recovered shortly after exhaustion [8]. Froyd et al. [32] also demonstrated a significant recovery in skeletal muscle function within 1–2 minutes after completion of a one-leg isokinetic time trial performed at high intensity. Taking all together, these results demonstrate that to fully appreciate the extent of neuromuscular alterations induced by high intensity dynamic exercise, assessment of muscle fatigue must be performed within 30 s of cessation of the exercise.

Rep schemes remain in the hypertrophy range this week, but overall volume increases by adding more sets to individual exercises: up to five sets per move for larger bodyparts, and even 10 sets of calf raises on Thursday. This bump in volume will ensure that your muscles are overloaded sufficiently to continue the growth they’ve already begun experiencing in the first three weeks. Completion of this four-week program now entitles you to go to the next stage.
If you notice words like high intensity, fat blasting, sweat producing and similar phrases, you can almost guarantee that the video is for intermediates at the very least and probably more suited for advanced users. The reason you want to start off slow is so you don’t get burned out the very first time you struggle through it. This doesn’t mean don’t challenge yourself, it just means start off with something you can have success in finishing and build on that success.
Continuous aerobic exercise can induce a transient state of euphoria, colloquially known as a "runner's high" in distance running or a "rower's high" in crew, through the increased biosynthesis of at least three euphoriant neurochemicals: anandamide (an endocannabinoid),[73] β-endorphin (an endogenous opioid),[74] and phenethylamine (a trace amine and amphetamine analog).[75][76][77]

Ken Hutchins' SuperSlow technical manual represents the first major advancement in exercise science since Arthur Jones' Nautilus Bulletins were published back in the early 1970's. Unlike most of the books that have been written on the subject over the past few decades, which are based on assumption and faulty reasoning, Mr. Hutchin's SuperSlow manual presents an exercise protocol based on solid reasoning, and principles logically derived from the classical sciences of biology and mechanical physics, and for the first time provides a proper definition of the word: exercise. I very strongly recommend this book to everyone with an interest in exercise, especially physicians, therapists and exercise instructors, who are looking for a safer, a more time-efficient, and a more productive method of exercise for themselves, their patients or clients. SuperSlow is not just better than other exercise protocols, it is so far superior to every other activity ever devised for the purpose of physical conditioning that no meaningful comparison is even possible. This is the future of exercise.

How much space do you have to exercise? – Do you have plenty of space to move around freely without hitting or running into anything? If you get kickboxing style exercise videos will you be able to follow the moves without taking out a living room lamp? Knowing how much space you will have to work out will help you match the exercise videos your purchase to the space you will be using to watch them and follow along.


Many exercise protocols are in use in clinical cardiology, but no single test is applicable to the wide range of patients' exercise capacity. A new protocol was devised that starts at a low workload and increases by 15% of the previous workload every minute. This is the first protocol to be based on exponential rather than linear increments in workload. The new protocol (standardised exponential exercise protocol, STEEP) is suitable for use on either a treadmill or a bicycle ergometer. This protocol was compared with standard protocols in 30 healthy male volunteers, each of whom performed four exercise tests: the STEEP treadmill and bicycle protocols, a modified Bruce treadmill protocol, and a 20 W/min bicycle protocol. During the two STEEP tests the subjects' oxygen consumption rose gradually and exponentially and there was close agreement between the bicycle and the treadmill protocols. A higher proportion of subjects completed the treadmill than the bicycle protocol. Submaximal heart rates were slightly higher during the bicycle test. The STEEP protocol took less time than the modified Bruce treadmill protocol, which tended to produce plateaux in oxygen consumption during the early stages. The 20 W/min bicycle protocol does not take account of subjects' body weight and consequently produced large intersubject variability in oxygen consumption. The STEEP protocol can be used on either a treadmill or a bicycle ergometer and it should be suitable for a wide range of patients.
Individual and group time to exhaustion duration are presented Table 2. Time to exhaustion duration ranged from 3.94 to 9.44 min (S1: 6.07 ± 1.71 min, S2: 5.59 ± 0.99 min, S3: 6.23 ± 1.68 min) and did not differ between sessions (P = 0.156). Individual and group CV are presented in Table 2. The ICC was 0.795 (0.493, 0.950). The typical error of measurement was 0.30 min and the smallest worthwhile change was 0.28 min. Bland-Altman plots for raw and log transformed data are presented in Fig 3. LOA was equal to 15.59.

Although there have been hundreds of studies on physical exercise and the immune system, there is little direct evidence on its connection to illness. Epidemiological evidence suggests that moderate exercise has a beneficial effect on the human immune system; an effect which is modeled in a J curve. Moderate exercise has been associated with a 29% decreased incidence of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI), but studies of marathon runners found that their prolonged high-intensity exercise was associated with an increased risk of infection occurrence. However, another study did not find the effect. Immune cell functions are impaired following acute sessions of prolonged, high-intensity exercise, and some studies have found that athletes are at a higher risk for infections. Studies have shown that strenuous stress for long durations, such as training for a marathon, can suppress the immune system by decreasing the concentration of lymphocytes.[26] The immune systems of athletes and nonathletes are generally similar. Athletes may have slightly elevated natural killer cell count and cytolytic action, but these are unlikely to be clinically significant.[27]

Outdoors in nearby area and in nature was the most frequently reported exercise location in both training groups. This finding is in line with previous studies reporting that older adults prefer to exercise close to home [23, 30] and outdoors [23]. Interestingly, outdoors was the most common exercise location in both warmer and colder months despite the fact that colder months in Norway consist of more snow, higher prevalence of ice and relatively fewer hours of daylight compared to warmer months. The HIIT group had a higher proportion of sessions at a gym and sport facility compared to the MCT group. This finding is likely related to the fact that the HIIT group reported a higher proportion of sessions with exercise types commonly performed at these locations (e.g. swimming and other types of endurance training) compared to the MCT group. Some older adults might feel that it is easier to reach a high-intensity level with activities located at a gym and sports facility compared to outdoors.
Too much exercise can be harmful. Without proper rest, the chance of stroke or other circulation problems increases,[80] and muscle tissue may develop slowly. Extremely intense, long-term cardiovascular exercise, as can be seen in athletes who train for multiple marathons, has been associated with scarring of the heart and heart rhythm abnormalities.[81][82][83] Specifically, high cardiac output has been shown to cause enlargement of the left and right ventricle volumes, increased ventricle wall thickness, and greater cardiac mass. These changes further result in myocardial cell damage in the lining of the heart, leading to scar tissue and thickened walls. During these processes, the protein troponin increases in the bloodstream, indicating cardiac muscle cell death and increased stress on the heart itself.[84]
It’s no secret that Beyoncé is a crazy-good performer, and while we could never mimic her vocals, with some coaching, we thought we could pick up her dance moves. That’s why we were so excited to discover this video series featuring choreographer Frank Gatson, Jr., who breaks down every portion of Beyoncé’s Let’s Move! campaign, which features a remix of “Get Me Bodied.” Watch the first instructional portion and then the second one to learn the entire routine.
"You will never get bored," said one tester, with the push-yourself workouts in the 21 Day Fix—seven 30-minute sessions ranging from high-intensity cardio-strength circuits to Pilates. Each routine "amps up familiar moves" to crank your calorie burn. Another tester was wowed that "so many different modifications and options were shown to help me switch up my workout." There's an included diet plan for those on a mission to trim.
Video Abstract for the ESSR 46.3 article “The Microvasculature and Skeletal Muscle Healthin Aging” from authors Rian Q. Landers-Ramos and Steven J. Prior. Aging and aging-related declines in physical activity are associated with physical and metabolic impairments. Skeletal muscle capillarization is reduced in sedentary older adults, may contribute to impairments in skeletal muscle, and is modifiable by exercise training. This article examines the hypothesis that preservation of skeletal muscle capillarization is essential to maintain metabolism, fitness, and function with aging.
Circuit training is a fun way to focus on strength and aerobic exercise and is great especially if you love some variety and a faster pace of working out. It’s worth noting that circuit training doesn’t offer the same level of conditioning as strength and aerobic exercise does on their own. Specifically, if your fitness goal is to be strong, circuit training is not the best way to reach that goal. You can do circuit training in groups or classes as well as alone. This article offers an easy way of creating your own circuit routines.
Active recovery is recommended after participating in physical exercise because it removes lactate from the blood more quickly than inactive recovery. Removing lactate from circulation allows for an easy decline in body temperature, which can also benefit the immune system, as an individual may be vulnerable to minor illnesses if the body temperature drops too abruptly after physical exercise.[142]

If you don't have access to weights, then you can perform resistance exercises utilizing just the weight of your own body. These types of exercises include pull ups, push ups, crunches, squats, and lunges. If you'd like to find a well designed workout using body weight resistance, try the Slow Burn Fitness Revolution, which relies on slow movements to really increase intensity as you perform isotonic exercises.


... The test was conducted at a self-chosen cadence between 55 and 95 revolutions per minute with an initial 5-minute warm up at 40 W followed by increments of 10 W/min (women) or 15 W/min (men) until voluntary exhaustion. Based on the expected maximal power output determined based on age, gender, disability, and body size, individual power output adjustments were made immediately after the 5-minute warm up in order to exhaust the subjects within 8 to 12 min after warm up [22]. Expired gas was collected in a mixing bag. ...
Now that you understand the vast amount of categories available to you, you can start narrowing the field of choices down by looking at the specifics of exercise videos and deciding which ones will be something you will not only enjoy but continue to use long term. If you are starting out as a beginner to exercise, then you should expect to upgrade your exercise videos as your fitness levels increase. You don’t have to stay with a beginner video when your fitness level advances to intermediate or advanced. Below are some factors to look at when looking at individual videos.
Bonds H. The politics of the male body in global sport - the Danish involvement. Oxon: Routledge; 2010.  During the 1920s, the method’s most popular decade, Müller’s books sold by the millions and his exercises were practiced extensively, including Franz Kafka and the Prince of Wales.16,17 Bonds H. The politics of the male body in global sport - the Danish involvement. Oxon: Routledge; 2010.
Aerobic exercise also helps relax blood vessel walls, lower blood pressure, burn body fat, lower blood sugar levels, reduce inflammation, boost mood, and raise "good" HDL cholesterol. Combined with weight loss, it can lower "bad" LDL cholesterol levels, too. Over the long term, aerobic exercise reduces your risk of heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, breast and colon cancer, depression, and falls.
... Differences in the duration of each stage and the load increments can alter the cardiorespiratory and metabolic response, and therefore the measurement ( Bentley et al., 2007;Julio et al., 2017). As suggested by pioneering studies (Buchfuhrer et al., 1983;Lukaski et al., 1989), recent investigations ( Midgley et al., 2007) and reviews ( Julio et al., 2017), traditional longer GXTs (i.e., 20-30 min) to determine LT including increments each 3-5 min would prevent the athlete from achieving their MAS due to accumulative fatigue, dehydration, muscle acidosis, and cardiovascular drift. This is critical because MAS is a pertinent and widespread criterion to set training intensities for endurance disciplines (Billat and Koralsztein, 1996;Jones and Carter, 2000). ...
Tracy Anderson: The Method For Beginners. Choose from a handful of workout DVDs from this celebrity trainer. She’ll have you working up a sweat doing cardio or more targeted moves for the arms, legs, and core. Anderson’s queue of videos range from about $2.99 to $9.99. Considering that Anderson has her own collection of studios across the globe that run about $45 per class, this is a steal!
Before anyone’s crowned Cap’n Crunch, remember form is key. Lie on your back with the knees bent and feet flat on the floor. With hands behind the head, place the chin down slightly and peel the head and shoulders off the mat while engaging the core. Continue curling up until the upper back is off the mat. Hold briefly, then lower the torso back toward the mat slowly.
Jump up ^ Hubal MJ, Gordish-Dressman H, Thompson PD, Price TB, Hoffman EP, Angelopoulos TJ, Gordon PM, Moyna NM, Pescatello LS, Visich PS, Zoeller RF, Seip RL, Clarkson PM; Gordish-Dressman; Thompson; Price; Hoffman; Angelopoulos; Gordon; Moyna; Pescatello; Visich; Zoeller; Seip; Clarkson (June 2005). "Variability in muscle size and strength gain after unilateral resistance training". Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 37 (6): 964–972. PMID 15947721.
In the 1950s postwar period, American capitalism prospered and families began moving to the suburbs. This led to an increase in automobile sales, as driving became a more viable transportation option than walking or taking public transportation, which took a small toll on public health. At the same time, families increasingly owned televisions and stay-at-home mothers spent much of their time at home during the day. As such, stay-at-home mothers became television's primary audience during the day, and created a market for televised workouts.

Data were analysed using three different methods: visual inspection, parametric statistics and calculation of sensitivity for both OTS and NFO detection. Because the sample size was rather small (ie, maximal 5 for each group), data were first inspected visually. Parametric statistics and sensitivity calculation were used to support conclusions from visual inspection of the data. For the purpose of visual inspection, we created graphs with averages and SE for both the OTS and the NFO groups.
Eight healthy and moderately active (a minimum of 2 h of aerobic activity per week) adults (mean ± SD; age: 22 ± 2 yrs, height: 171 ± 8 cm, weight: 69 ± 8 kg, 5 males and 3 females) volunteered to participate in this study. None of the subjects had any known mental or somatic disorder. Each subject gave written informed consent prior to the study. Experimental protocol and procedures were approved by the local Ethics Committee of the School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Kent at Medway (Ethic clearance Prop97_2013_14). The study conformed to the standards set by the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki “Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects” (2008). All subjects were given written instructions describing all procedures related to the study.
EMG of the Vastus Lateralis (VL), Rectus Femoris (RF), Vastus Medialis (VM) and Biceps Femoris was recorded with pairs of silver chloride circular (recording diameter of 10 mm) surface electrodes (Swaromed, Nessler Medizintechnik, ref 1066, Innsbruck, Austria) with an interelectrode (center-to-center) distance of 20 mm. Recording sites (belly of each muscle, as distal as possible from the hips when the subject was asked to contract his quadriceps at a knee angle of 10 deg) were then carefully adjusted at the beginning of each testing session (electrode placement was drawn on the skin with permanent marker to ensure reproducibility of the recording site). Low resistance between the two electrodes (< 5 kΩ) was obtained by shaving the skin, and dirt was removed from the skin using alcohol swabs. The reference electrode was attached to the patella of the right knee. Myoelectrical signals were amplified with a bandwidth frequency ranging from 10 Hz to 500 Hz (gain: VL = 500; RF and VM = 1000), digitized on-line at a sampling frequency of 2 kHz using a computer, and stored for analysis with commercially available software (Acqknowledge 4.2 for MP Systems, Biopac Systems Inc., Goleta, USA). Due to the pressure of the thigh on the dynamometer chair, the Biceps Femoris EMG signal quality was impaired (e.g. numerous artefacts, problems with electrodes) and therefore not analyzed.
One of the most recognized MMB pioneers was Joseph Hubertus Pilates, born near Dusseldorf in Germany to a prize-winning gymnastics father and naturopath mother. According to Pilates historians’, he was a bullied child who suffered asthma and a weak body that he overcame as a teenager by learning anatomy from medical books and the practice of sports such as wrestling and gymnastics. During this process, he developed a model body, which was even displayed in anatomy classes.39,40 Balanced Body, Inc. [Internet]. Origins of Pilates. 2015 Aug 30 [cited 2015 Aug 30]. Available from: https://www.pilates.com/BBAPP/V/pilates/origins-of-pilates.html.
17.  If you're getting a normal amount of usable protein (about one gram per five pounds of body weight), your body will require a bit more protein than usual as you increase lean muscle tissue). Uncooked protein is preferable to cooked protein (cooking denatures proteins, damaging them, and making them appear as a foreign invader to the body which can trigger an autoimmune response). A good source of protein is fruits, vegetables, and nuts. (Yes, nuts have fat too, but it's "good" fat, and your body needs fat in your diet; you can have a lean body while eating the right kinds of fat!) Give your body the additional protein as it asks for it. Listen carefully, and you'll know when. Remember, it's very difficult to get too little protein; most people get way too much, and too much protein is a cause of degenerative disease. (See Fact or Fiction: High protein diets are great for losing weight)
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