An evidence-based journal club of 9 faculty members and fellows reviewed the articles and extracted and tabulated the data. Individual outcomes for pain, range of motion (ROM), strength, and function were organized. Intragroup and between-groups outcomes were assessed for the effectiveness of treatment, and statistical outcomes were recorded when available. Clinical importance was determined when statistical value was P < .05 and the effect size or difference between treatments was 20% or more. Sixa major categories were created to organize the components of the physical therapy programs used in each study: ROM, flexibility and stretching, strengthening techniques, therapist-driven manual therapy, modalities, and schedule. Components from these categories were used to create a synthesized physical therapy program.
I've given this program a good 6 weeks so far. I'm 5-10 pounds overweight with some physical issues and a history of car crash injuries. I have a medical degree and a background in nutrition and fitness with several years of yoga (various disciplines) under my belt. Overall, I do like the program, but there are some VERY important things you should know before purchasing and participating..
In recent years, the simple exercise DVD has morphed into a complete “home fitness system,” offering multiple discs with up to a dozen workouts that are combined in very prescriptive ways. They come complete with diets, making them more like plans than just exercise routines. And they cost a lot more than the $10 or $12 you’d spend on a workout DVD. It has been almost a decade since P90X, the leader of the trend, came on the market. The craze shows no sign of slowing down, so we decided to find out whether four leading DVD systems were worth it.
Pregnant women may find yoga to be a beneficial workout, but you should always consult your physician before engaging in any exercise program, especially during pregnancy. Individuals who want a more relaxing form of exercise while improving upon their current level of fitness will find yoga to be enjoyable. Many people benefit from the clear-headedness that comes with the deep breathing and mind-calming exercises that take place with yoga.
^ Jump up to: a b c d Basso JC, Suzuki WA (March 2017). "The Effects of Acute Exercise on Mood, Cognition, Neurophysiology, and Neurochemical Pathways: A Review". Brain Plasticity. 2 (2): 127–152. doi:10.3233/BPL-160040. Lay summary – Can A Single Exercise Session Benefit Your Brain? (12 June 2017). A large collection of research in humans has shown that a single bout of exercise alters behavior at the level of affective state and cognitive functioning in several key ways. In terms of affective state, acute exercise decreases negative affect, increases positive affect, and decreases the psychological and physiological response to acute stress . These effects have been reported to persist for up to 24 hours after exercise cessation [28, 29, 53]. In terms of cognitive functioning, acute exercise primarily enhances executive functions dependent on the prefrontal cortex including attention, working memory, problem solving, cognitive flexibility, verbal fluency, decision making, and inhibitory control . These positive changes have been demonstrated to occur with very low to very high exercise intensities , with effects lasting for up to two hours after the end of the exercise bout (Fig. 1A) . Moreover, many of these neuropsychological assessments measure several aspects of behavior including both accuracy of performance and speed of processing. McMorris and Hale performed a meta-analysis examining the effects of acute exercise on both accuracy and speed of processing, revealing that speed significantly improved post-exercise, with minimal or no effect on accuracy . These authors concluded that increasing task difficulty or complexity may help to augment the effect of acute exercise on accuracy. ... However, in a comprehensive meta-analysis, Chang and colleagues found that exercise intensities ranging from very light (<50% MHR) to very hard (>93% MHR) have all been reported to improve cognitive functioning .
Bottom line. Strength training with heavy weights is a better way to target your glutes, but that’s not something most people will do. The program includes low- and high-impact routines, so you don’t need to be extremely fit to start. If you don’t mind doing lots of squats and lunges and you like the idea of dancing your way to fitness, this may be good for you. The Brazil Butt Lift eating plan includes basic recipes with easy variations.
PiYo isn't like standard Pilates and yoga classes that make you hold long, intense poses, or lead you through dozens of repetitive, microscopic core movements. PiYo speeds everything up—including your results—by introducing you to dynamic, flowing sequences that can burn serious calories at the same time as they lengthen and tone your muscles and increase your flexibility.
Chronic stress and the subsequent chronic peripheral glucocorticoid secretion plays an important role in the desensitisation of higher brain centre response during acute stressors because it has been shown that in acute (and also chronic) immobilisation, the responsiveness of hypothalamic corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons rapidly falls.26 These adaptation mechanisms could be the consequence of changes in neurotransmitter release, depletion of CRH and/or desensitisation of hypothalamic hormonal release to afferent neurotransmitter input.26 Indeed, concentrations of CRH are elevated, the number of CRH-secreting neurons in the limbic brain regions is increased and the number of CRH binding sites in the frontal cortex is reduced secondary to increased CRH concentrations following chronic stress.25
From a historical perspective, Pilates grew up with the mind–body approaches that were popular in Germany at the turn of the 20th century. However, he developed ‘Contrology’ as a concept method only after the several years in which he was free to roam and consolidate his self-learning process in England between 1912 and 1914. According to this research, it is likely he was exposed during these formative years in England to the prominent mind–body methods of Müller and Randell.
I've been climbing for about a year. This book provides a lot of fundamental techniques for things such as warmup and antagonist training. It's easy to get overzealous when it comes to training but the book gives you keys to build a strong foundation and helps you identify what your already doing right. I will be applying the information to my training.
15. Make sure you get a good night's sleep, especially on the day you've worked out. This is crucial! Repair takes place during deep sleep. Your body normally gets a few deep sleep cycles during the night. If your alarm clock cuts short or eliminates one of these cycles, it's not a good thing. On your exercise day, you'll need to get a bit more sleep than usual; plan for it! Go to sleep a little earlier. Don't worry, after an intense workout you'll have no trouble falling asleep.
The participants completed in total 69 492 exercise logs (33 608 HIIT group) during the year, of which 39 075 were received in prepaid envelopes and 30 417 in internet-based forms. Both groups performed 2.2 ± 1.3 exercise sessions per week. Almost 80% of the sessions in the MCT group were actually performed with moderate intensity (11–14 on the Borg scale), while almost 60% of the sessions in the HIIT group were performed with high intensity (≥15 on the Borg scale) (Fig. 2). In the MCT group, women had a significantly higher proportion of sessions with moderate intensity compared to men (81.7% vs. 74.9%, p < 0.01). In the HIIT group, men had a higher proportion of sessions with high intensity compared to women (63.7% vs. 52.3%, p < 0.01) (Fig. 2). In the MCT group, 9.6, 43 and 47.4% of the sessions had a duration of < 30 min, 30 min to 1 h, and more than 1 h, respectively. The corresponding percentages in the HIIT group were 10.1, 45 and 44.9%.
Your muscles perform several functions during isotonic exercise. They push, pull, bend and straighten. For instance, when you bend your arm at the elbow to perform a bicep curl, you flex your bicep. When you unbend your arm at the elbow to perform a triceps kickback, you extend your triceps. When you lie on your back and push a weight up from your chest, you extend your pectoral muscles. When you perform a pull up, you flex your back muscles. Muscles that perform opposite functions of the same region (such as biceps and triceps flexing and extending the arm) are called complimentary muscle groups. When performing isotonic exercises, it is important to balance exercises between complimentary muscle groups in order to prevent injury and develop balanced strength throughout your body.
Circuit Training. Some gyms are set up to move people from machine to machine or exercise to exercise with little rest. This keeps the heart pumping and the muscles working. Work at each station for 30 to 45 seconds, or a certain number of reps, and keep the rest periods short, just the time it takes to walk from station to station. Like with supersets, this method combines the benefits of strength training and a bit of cardio at the same time Similarity in adaptations to high-resistance circuit vs. traditional strength training in resistance-trained men. Alcaraz, P.E., Perez-Gomez, J., Chavarrias, M., et al. Biomechanics Laboratory, Department of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, San Antonio Catholic University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research; 2011 Sep;25(9):2519-27. Physical performance and cardiovascular responses to an acute bout of heavy resistance circuit training versus traditional strength training. Alcaraz, P.E., Sanchez-Lorente, J., Blazevich, A.J. Kinesiology and Biomechanics Laboratory, Department of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, Universidad Católica San Antonio de Murcia, Guadalupe, Murcia, Spain. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research; 2008 May;22(3):667-71.. It's easy to do a simple circuit at home, too: Lunges from wall to wall, sit ups in front of the TV, incline push ups on the coffee table, lateral hops over the sleeping puppy — work hard, move quick, get fit!
An early detailed documentation of a Western mind–body exercise philosophy was created in the late 18th century by Swedish medical gymnastics teacher Pehr Henrik Ling (1766–1839), who is remembered as the father of Swedish Gymnastics. Ling developed an apparatus-free method to improve functional movement and concurrently address the concept of prevention and healing of human diseases.4 Bakewell S. Illustrations from the Wellcome Institute Library: Medical gymnastics and the Cyriax collection. Med Hist. 1997;41:487–95.10.1017/S0025727300063067[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar] His early age rheumatism, experiences as a Fencing Master and his studies of medicine at Uppsala University influenced his ideas on the remedial benefits of physical training.5 Brodin H. Per Henrik Ling and his impact on gymnastics. Sven Med Tidskr. 2008;12(1):61–8.[PubMed] [Google Scholar] His 1853 book ‘Gymnastic Free Exercises’ stated: ‘It cannot be denied that the art of preventing disease is far preferable to that of curing it.’6 Ling PH. The gymnastic free exercises. Boston (MA): Ticknor, Reed and Fields; 1853. [Google Scholar] Ling regarded his ‘gymnastic free exercises’ as one of two separate yet related systems; the other being competitive gymnastics and athletics. Together, these two systems defined what became the Physical Culture or Gymnasium Movement of the 19th century.5,7 Brodin H. Per Henrik Ling and his impact on gymnastics. Sven Med Tidskr. 2008;12(1):61–8.
I personally admit to having roller-coaster exercise habits myself. I’ll be a gym rat for three months, followed by four months of sloth and busy-ness. A few years ago, I finally realized how crappy I felt when I hadn’t exercised, and I resolved to find some way to ensure I was at least getting some exercise every day -- even when I couldn’t make it to the gym.
This study was supported by grants from the Liaison Committee for education, research and innovation in Central Norway, The K.G Jebsen Foundation for medical research and the Research Council of Norway. The funding organizations had no role in the design and execution of the study, in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of the data, or in the preparation, review or approval of the submitted manuscript.
Start in a low lunge position with right foot forward, left foot back, and fingertips touching the ground for balance. In one smooth movement, bring left foot forward and, as you stand on right foot, continue to lift left knee toward chest and hop up on right foot. Land lightly on right foot and immediately slide left foot behind you to return to starting position. Repeat for half the time then switch to the other side.
Physical activity is beneficial for young people, who are naturally primed to soak up its rewards. The reality is that the majority of today’s youths, however, fall into one of two camps: Either they are athletes, engaging in one or many sports (as well as auxiliary training such as weightlifting and agility work, which can help create lifelong fitness habits) or they are sedentary.
The military press is similar to the shoulder press but is performed while standing with the feet together. (It is named "military" because of the similarity in appearance to the "at attention" position used in most militaries) Unlike the seated shoulder press, the military press involves the majority of the muscles of the core as stabilizers to keep the body rigid and upright, and is thus a more effective compound exercise.
You’ll begin the program with a full-body training split, meaning you’ll train all major bodyparts in each workout (as opposed to “splitting up” your training). Train three days this first week, performing just one exercise per bodypart in each session. It’s important that you have a day of rest between each workout to allow your body to recover; this makes training Monday, Wednesday and Friday—with Saturday and Sunday being rest days—a good approach.
16. Make sure you stay hydrated! Even mild dehydration hampers recovery. The drink of choice? Water! And for mineral replacement, especially sodium, I make sure my diet includes various amounts of celery, romaine lettuce, and a nutritional adjunct to the diet, a powdered barley grass juice called Daily Green Boost (if the foods I eat are grown in soils that are sodium insufficient, I won't get enough sodium, and if those foods that are supposed to be good sources of sodium don't taste savory, they are grown in sub-par soils).
^ Jump up to: a b c Schuch FB, Vancampfort D, Rosenbaum S, Richards J, Ward PB, Stubbs B (July 2016). "Exercise improves physical and psychological quality of life in people with depression: A meta-analysis including the evaluation of control group response". Psychiatry Res. 241: 47–54. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2016.04.054. PMID 27155287. Exercise has established efficacy as an antidepressant in people with depression. ... Exercise significantly improved physical and psychological domains and overall QoL. ... The lack of improvement among control groups reinforces the role of exercise as a treatment for depression with benefits to QoL.
For Paced Audio Workouts: MotionTraxx (iPhone or iPad) - This music-based app is another great option for home exercisers, particularly if you're a walker or runner. Deekron the Fitness DJ has put together an incredible variety of music mixes, all set at different beats per minute, so you can find the perfect pace for any workout - Walking, running, lifting weights or other activities. There are also coached workouts (these cost extra) available at iTunes.
Trainer Natalie Uhling is all about the tried and true burpee for full body conditioning in 30 seconds—though she recommends three sets of 30-second burpees with a 15-second break between sets. For “quality” burpees, she says to do the following: Start with your feet shoulder-width apart and a slight bend in your knees; make sure that you are not pushing through the toes of your feet but you are starting centered. As you jump, remember to land softly because you want to protect your joints. When you make your way down to the plank position, make sure your core is protected, that means keep your hips square and your butt out of the sky.
This powerful upper-body toner can be done on a mat, reformer, or Wunda chair. If using a mat, sit with your legs straight in front of you, feet together and flexed. Press your hands flat on the mat, look down, and use your upper body strength to lift your backside and upper legs. Swing yourself forward and backward before lowering slowly to the mat. Do five reps.
Leg muscle pain, defined as “the intensity of hurt that a subject feel in his quadriceps muscles only” , was measured during the incremental test (at the end of each minute) and during the time to exhaustion tests (at the end of the warm-up and every 30 s) using the Cook scale . Standardized instructions for the scale were given to each subject before the warm-up. Briefly, subjects were asked to rate the feelings of pain specifically in their quadriceps and not to report other pains they may have experienced (e.g., seat discomfort). Subjects were also asked to not use this rating as an expression of perceived effort .
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Ready to begin rehabbing your core before you’re cleared to exercise? We can help with this too! Have a talk with your care provider and we’ll take care of the rest. During this early rehabilitation stage, we keep it simple, helping you integrate our techniques into your new life, progressing you when you and your body are ready for the next steps. The way we connect to our body in the first several weeks postpartum can really set the stage for the months ahead.
Angular velocity of the pre and post isokinetic maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the knee extensors (KE) tests were randomized between sessions (60-100-140 deg/s, 100-140-60 deg/s or 140-60-100 deg/s). One isometric MVC of the knee flexors was also performed pre and post exercise, 20 s following completion of the last KE MVC. Post tests were performed either shortly after exhaustion (13 ± 4 s), 20 s following exhaustion (P20) or 40 s following exhaustion (P40).
Time course of normalized EMG RMS for all muscles was analyzed with fully repeated measures 3 (session) x 10 (time: from 10 to 100% of time to exhaustion) ANOVA. Fully repeated measures 3 (session) x 11 (time: warm-up and from 10 to 100% of time to exhaustion) ANOVAs were used to analyze the time course of leg RPE, leg muscle pain, heart rate and cadence. Significant effect of time was explored with planned comparison (10% vs other time points, 100% vs other time points) adjusted with Holm-Bonferonni correction.
Ken Hutchins' analysis is not just book theory; it is based on real experience training many, many thousands of subjects over a span of decades. He trained everyone from amateur and professional level athletes and bodybuilders to little old ladies with osteoporosis and also a great many genetically normal/average folks. He assisted Arthur Jones and Ellington Darden at Nautilus Sports Medical Industries where he first refined the Superslow method during a 5 years long clinical trial, the Nautilus Osteoporosis Study at The University of Florida Medical School in Gainesville (the study is mentioned in chapter 8 of the 1990 edition of "The Nautilus Book" by Ellington Darden, a book I highly recommend for beginning HIT practitioners). Hutchins' writing is as dry and clinical as one would expect to find in any textbook about medicine or engineering. It is also filled with rich insight into the intellectual processes and long history of carefully controlled experiments at Nautilus (and later Hutchins' own facilities) that brought Ken Hutchins to his current level of knowledge. His understanding of anatomy, biology, physics, engineering, psychology, history and sociology are all put to good use in this book and should enthrall any reader that possesses solid critical-thinking skills. Understanding the arguments for a distinction of "Exercise vs. Recreation", "The First Definition of Exercise" and "Requirements for Functional Ability" are crucial for everyone that cares even the slightest about the subject of human health, fitness, longevity or quality of life. These are not trivial matters.
We recently developed a high intensity one leg dynamic exercise (OLDE) protocol to measure muscle endurance and investigate the central and peripheral mechanisms of muscle fatigue. The aims of the present study were to establish the reliability of this novel protocol and describe the isokinetic muscle fatigue induced by high intensity OLDE and its recovery. Eight subjects performed the OLDE protocol (time to exhaustion test of the right leg at 85% of peak power output) three times over a week period. Isokinetic maximal voluntary contraction torque at 60 (MVC60), 100 (MVC100) and 140 (MVC140) deg/s was measured pre-exercise, shortly after exhaustion (13 ± 4 s), 20 s (P20) and 40 s (P40) post-exercise. Electromyographic (EMG) signal was analyzed via the root mean square (RMS) for all three superficial knee extensors. Mean time to exhaustion was 5.96 ± 1.40 min, coefficient of variation was 8.42 ± 6.24%, typical error of measurement was 0.30 min and intraclass correlation was 0.795. MVC torque decreased shortly after exhaustion for all angular velocities (all P < 0.001). MVC60 and MVC100 recovered between P20 (P < 0.05) and exhaustion and then plateaued. MVC140 recovered only at P40 (P < 0.05). High intensity OLDE did not alter maximal EMG RMS of the three superficial knee extensors during MVC. The results of this study demonstrate that this novel high intensity OLDE protocol could be reliably used to measure muscle endurance, and that muscle fatigue induced by high intensity OLDE should be examined within ~ 30 s following exhaustion.
Lie on your back with the knees bent and feet hip-width apart. Place arms at your side and lift up the spine and hips. Only the head, feet, arms, and shoulders should be on the ground. Then lift one leg upwards, keeping the core tight. Slowly bring the leg back down, then lift back up. Try to do 10 reps per leg, then bring the knee in place and spine back on the floor.
In just 30 minutes a day, you can get definition you’ve always wanted with Tony Horton’s P90X3 Base kit. You will enjoy unprecedented moves that bust your muscles on a daily basis and you won’t have to work out for hours at a time. These workouts are great for really challenging the user to push their limits and stick with a program that will get massive results. Included in the P90X3 workout are 16 30 minutes workouts, a Fitness Guide, a Nutrition Plan, Workout Calendar, “How to Accelerate” DVD and 24/7 support online. One of the things that make these exercise videos so popular is that there is a different workout every single day so boredom is a thing of the past.
Exercise and physical activity fall into four basic categories—endurance, strength, balance, and flexibility. Most people tend to focus on one activity or type of exercise and think they’re doing enough. Each type is different, though. Doing them all will give you more benefits. Mixing it up also helps to reduce boredom and cut your risk of injury.
Walking was the most common exercise type in both training groups (Fig. 3). Compared to HIIT, MCT had a significantly higher proportion of sessions with walking and resistance training. Contrary, compared to MCT, HIIT had a higher proportion of sessions with cycling, combined endurance and resistance training, other types of endurance training (e.g. aerobic, treadmill), jogging, swimming and dancing. There were no group differences regarding cross-country skiing and domestic activities (e.g. housework, gardening) (Fig. 3).
Contrary to popular belief, most injuries in a gym or not caused by “too much weight” (although it is certainly possible). Most gym-related injuries are caused by too much FORCE, not too much weight. Remember: F=MxA (Force = Mass x Acceleration). If you can reduce the Acceleration, you will reduce the Force that your body is exposed to. This greatly reduces the risk of injury. It isn’t necessarily the weight that causes injury, but the person’s “behavior” with the weight that determines the level of safety. With slow motion exercise, we lift and lower weight so deliberately, so slowly, our protocol is one of the safest resistance training programs available.
In parallel, Prussian nationalist and exercise instructor Friedrich Ludwig Jahn (1778–1852) advocated strengthening one’s mind and body through gymnastics.8 The Historic society of Pennsylvania [Internet]. Progress turnverein. 2007 May 3 [cited 2015 Aug 30]. Available from: http://hsp.org/sites/default/files/legacy_files/migrated/findingaid3057progressturnverein.pdf. [Google Scholar] Jahn invented the standard equipment of modern gymnastics; the parallel bars, rings, balance beam, horse, and horizontal bar4 Bakewell S. Illustrations from the Wellcome Institute Library: Medical gymnastics and the Cyriax collection. Med Hist. 1997;41:487–95.10.1017/S0025727300063067[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar] and in 1811, founded the Physical Culture Movement in Germany.8 The Historic society of Pennsylvania [Internet]. Progress turnverein. 2007 May 3 [cited 2015 Aug 30]. Available from: http://hsp.org/sites/default/files/legacy_files/migrated/findingaid3057progressturnverein.pdf. [Google Scholar] Ling and Jahn’s Physical Culture gained following and flourished in gymnasiums throughout Europe and later in the United States of America until the end of the 19th century. However, toward the end of the century, the original concept of harmonious interaction between the competitive and holistic exercise systems eroded and deteriorated. This was due to the late 19th century shift in the gymnasium environment toward harsh paramilitary style training.9–11 Checkley E. A natural method of physical training. New York (NY): William C. Bryant & Co.; 1890.
The exercises that Kuhn provided can be viewed as a partial list of exercises that might be appropriate for treating an individual with RCIS. We offer modifications to 3 of the proposed exercises and discuss factors used by athletic trainers and physical therapists to establish initial exercise selection, intensity, and periodic modification of an exercise program that were not discussed by Kuhn. Based on current evidence, the anterior shoulder stretch in the proposed protocol might not be the most effective way to stretch the pectoral muscles. When performing the stretch as described in the protocol, the individual is instructed to place his or her hands at shoulder level on either side of a door or corner and to lean forward. This might be a preferred position to initiate pectoral muscle stretch if the individual is unable to perform stretching with the arm elevated as a result of pain; however, evidence3 indicates that changing the position of the upper extremity so that the individual's hand is above the head with the shoulder in 90° of abduction and 90° of external rotation likely provides a more effective stretch.
Besides toning the muscles, Pilates is known for boosting endurance. A wall and small hand-weights are the only necessities for this highly effective exercise. Stand with your back against the wall and feet hip-width apart. Walk the feet out a little, bend the knees, and slide down as if sitting in a chair. Progress in intensity each day until you can get your upper legs parallel to the floor. Raise the arms to shoulder height and hold for 30 seconds. Do two reps.
Most gyms assault their members with a cacophony of distractions – thumping music, blaring televisions, and grunting patrons. We are careful to maintain a clean and distraction-free facility. There is no music and there are no mirrors or televisions. The temperature is kept at 68 degrees. The sessions are one-on-one with a focus on privacy. Instructors are dressed professionally at all times and closely monitor and record every aspect of their client's performance.
Neuromuscular function tests were performed pre and post-exercise to quantify muscle fatigue. As previous studies documented the extent of isometric muscle fatigue induced by OLDE [8, 11, 17, 18], we chose to focus only on isokinetic muscle fatigue. Therefore, knee extensors (KE) MVCs were performed at 60 (MVC60), 100 (MVC100) and 140 (MVC140) deg/s pre (after the warm-up) and post-exercise (13 ± 4s after exhaustion). Subjects were asked to perform two maximal isokinetic knee extensions at each angular velocity (starting position corresponded to knee angle at 90 deg; range of motion was the same as the OLDE). The highest peak torque value of the two trials was considered, and a 20 s recovery was set between each set of KE MVCs. The order of contractions was randomized between sessions as follow (60-100-140 deg/s, 100-140-60 deg/s or 140-60-100 deg/s) and identical for testing pre and post-exercise of the same session. This randomization allows obtaining a time course of KE MVC torque recovery following the time to exhaustion test at each angular velocity was obtained at a different time point at each session: either shortly after exhaustion (13 ± 4 s after exhaustion), 20 s following exhaustion test (P20) and 40 s following exhaustion test (P40). An overview of timing can be found in Fig 1. Twenty seconds after completion of the last KE MVC, a maximal isometric MVC of the knee flexors was performed (isometric KF MVC). Visual feedback of the torque and strong verbal encouragement were provided for each MVC [please see reference 9 for more details].
One new exercise is added to each bodypart routine to provide even more angles from which to train your target muscles to promote complete development. You’ll hit each muscle group with two exercises of 3–4 sets each: four sets for large bodyparts (chest, back, shoulders, quads, hamstrings) and three sets for smaller bodyparts (biceps, triceps, abs, calves). The result is 16 total sets for the week for large bodyparts and 12 sets total for smaller ones—again, working in the 8–15-rep range—which is a substantial increase in volume from Week 1.